Saf Health Work.  2015 Jun;6(2):120-127. 10.1016/

Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain Among Rural Hand-woven Carpet Weavers in Iran

  • 1Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.
  • 2Department of Biostatistics and epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.
  • 3Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shahroud University of Medical sciences, Shahroud, Iran.
  • 4Department of Occupational Health, School of Health, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 5Center of Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.


Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a common and disabling problem among carpet weavers and is linked to physical and psychosocial factors of work. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MSP, its psychosocial risk factors, and association of pain in each pair of anatomical sites among carpet weavers.
A cross-sectional study was performed among 546 hand-woven carpet weavers in rural small-scale workshops of Iran. Data were collected by using parts of a standardized CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) questionnaire focused on MSP in 10 body sites, including the low-back, neck, both right and left shoulders, elbows, wrists/hands, individual, physical and psychosocial risk factors. Statistical analysis was performed applying logistic regression models.
Prevalence of MSP in at least one body site was 51.7% over the past month. The most common sites were low back and right shoulder pain 27.4% and 20.1%, respectively. A significant difference was found between the mean number of painful anatomical sites and the level of education, age, physical loading at work, time pressure, lack of support, and job dissatisfaction. In pairwise comparisons, strongest association was found between pain in each bilateral anatomical site (odds ratio = 11.6-35.3; p < 0.001).
In home-based workshops of carpet weaving, psychosocial factors and physical loading were associated with MSP. This finding is consistent with studies conducted among other jobs. Considering the preventive programs, the same amount of attention should be paid to psychosocial risk factors and physical loading. Also, further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationship of psychological factors.


carpet weavers; Iran; multiple sites; musculoskeletal pain; occupational injuries
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