J Korean Acad Prosthodont.  2009 Apr;47(2):164-173. 10.4047/jkap.2009.47.2.164.

Screw Joint Stability under Cyclic Loading of Zirconia Implant Abutments

  • 1Esthetic Restorative Dentistry, Korea University Graduate School of Clinical Dentistry, Korea University Institute for Clinical Dental Research, Korea. koprosth@unitel.co.kr


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of abutment material on screw-loosening before and after cyclic loading. Among the different materials of abutments, zirconia and metal abutment were used. MATERIAL AND METHODS:: Two types of implant systems: external butt joint (US II, Osstem Implant, Korea) and internal conical joint (GS II, Osstem Implant, Korea) were used. In each type, specimens were divided into two different kinds of abutments: zirconia and metal (n = 5). The implant was rigidly held in a special holding to device ensure fixation. Abutment was connected to 30 Ncm with digital torque gauge, and was retightened in 30 Ncm after 10 minutes. The initial removal torque values were measured. The same specimens were tightened in 30 Ncm again and held in the cycling loading simulator (Instron, USA) according to ISO/FPIS 1480. Cycling loading tests were performed at loads 10 to 250 N, for 1 million cycles, at 14 Hz, (by subjecting sinusoidal wave from 10 to 250 N at a frequency of 14 Hz for 1 million cycles,) and then postload removal torque values were evaluated. RESULTS: 1. In all samples, the removal values of abutment screw were lower than tightening torque values (30 Ncm), but the phenomenon of the screw loosening was not observed. 2. In both of the implant systems, initial and postload removal torque of zirconia abutment were significantly higher than those of metal abutment (P < .05). 3. In both of the implant systems, the difference in removal torque ratio between zirconia abutment and metal abutment was not significant (P > .05). 4. In metal abutments, the removal torque ratio of GS II system (internal conical joint system) was lower than that of US II system (external butt joint system) (P < .05). 5. In zirconia abutments, the difference in removal torque ratio between the two implant systems was not significant (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Zirconia abutment had a good screw joint stability in the condition of one million cycling loading.


zirconia abutment; screw joint stability; cyclic loading; removal torque value; removal torque ratio
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