J Korean Acad Prosthodont.  2016 Apr;54(2):93-102. 10.4047/jkap.2016.54.2.93.

Comparison of marginal and internal fit of zirconia abutments with titanium abutments in internal hexagonal implants

  • 1Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Republic of Korea. hwcho@wku.ac.kr


The aim of this study was to evaluate the fit accuracy of two zirconia and titanium abutments in internal hexagonal implants.
One titanium abutment and two zirconia abutments were tested in internal hexagonal implants (TSV, Zimmer). Prefabricated zirconia abutments (ZirAce, Acucera) and customized zirconia abutments milled by the Zirkonzahn system (Zirkonzahn Max, Zirkonzahn) were selected and prefabricated titanium abutments (Hex-Lock, Zimmer) were used as a control. Eight abutments per group were connected to implants with 30 Ncm torque. The marginal gaps at abutment-implant interface, the internal gaps at internal hex, vertical and horizontal gaps between screws and screw seats in abutments were measured after sectioning the embedded specimens using a scanning electron microscope. Data analysis included one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffe test (n=16, α=0.05).
The mean marginal gap of customized zirconia abutment was higher than those of two prefabricated zirconia and titanium abutments. The internal gaps at internal hex showed no significant differences between customized and prefabricated abutments and were higher than those of prefabricated titanium abutments. The mean vertical and horizontal gaps at screw in prefabricated zirconia abutment were higher than those of prefabricated titanium abutment. In the case of customized zirconia abutment, the mean horizontal gap at screw was higher than those of both the prefabricated zirconia and the titanium abutment but the mean vertical gap was not even measureable. The screw seats were clearly formed but did not match with abutment screws in prefabricated zirconia abutments. They were not, however, precisely formed in the case of customized zirconia abutments.
Within the limitations of this study, the prefabricated titanium abutments showed better fit than the zirconia abutments, regardless of customized or prefabricated. Also, the customized zirconia abutments showed significantly higher marginal gaps and the fit was less accurate between screws and screw seats than the prefabricated abutments, titanium and zirconia.


Fit; Internal connection implant; Zirconia abutment; Titanium abutment; Customized zirconia abutment
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