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Full mouth rehabilitation for a Parkinson's diseases patient with chronic periodontitis: a case report

Koh ES, Kim JJ, Baik J, Cha HS, Lee JH

Parkinson's disease is a neurological disorder characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, akinesia, postural instability, and muscular rigidity, which is caused by the depletion of neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Cooperative dental treatment...
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Targeted temperature management for ischemic stroke

Hong JM

Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) or targeted temperature management is an intentional cooling or temperature control technique using a thermostatic equipment (i.e., surface, endovascular, and focal devices) for specific therapeutic purposes. Given...
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A physiology based model of heart rate variability

von Rosenberg W, Hoting MO, Mandic DP

Heart rate variability (HRV) is governed by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and is routinely used to estimate the state of body and mind. At the same time, recorded HRV...
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Learning and Oxytocin

Chung YI, Lee BD, Lee YM

Neuropeptide oxytocin serves as a neuromodulator in the brain and as a hormone in the body. Oxytocin as a hypothalamic hormone causes contractions during the second and third stages of...
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Diagnosis and Management of Functional Chest Pain in the Rome IV Era

Fass R, Shibli F, Tawil J

  • KMID: 2460477
  • J Neurogastroenterol Motil.
  • 2019 Oct;25(4):487-498.
  • doi: 10.5056/jnm19146
Functional chest pain accounts for about a third of the patients with noncardiac chest pain. It is a very common functional esophageal disorder that remains even today a management challenge...
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Neuroimmune interactions and kidney disease

Hasegawa S, Inoue T, Inagi R

The autonomic nervous system plays critical roles in maintaining homeostasis in humans, directly regulating inflammation by altering the activity of the immune system. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a well-studied...
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Methylphenidate and Central Precocious Puberty: A Probable Side Effect among Seven Children with the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Ergür AT, Gül H, Gül A

Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most preferred drug for treatment of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we aimed to discuss the possible effects and mechanisms of MPH on precocious...
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Potentiation of the glycine response by serotonin on the substantia gelatinosa neurons of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis in mice

Nguyen HT, Cho DH, Jang SH, Han SK, Park SJ

The lamina II, also called the substantia gelatinosa (SG), of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), is thought to play an essential role in the control of orofacial nociception. Glycine and...
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Melatonin inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor functions in bovine chromaffin cells

Jo SH, Lee SH, Kim KT, Choi SY

Melatonin is a neurotransmitter that modulates various physiological phenomena including regulation and maintenance of the circadian rhythm. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in oral functions including orofacial...
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Effects of Amisulpride Adjunctive Therapy on Working Memory and Brain Metabolism in the Frontal Cortex of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography Investigation

Park JH, Hong JS, Kim SM, Min KJ, Chung US, Han DH

OBJECTIVE: Dopamine plays a significant role in working memory by acting as a key neuromodulator between brain networks. Additionally, treatment of patients with schizophrenia using amisulpride, a pure dopamine class...
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Evaluation of Endothelial Dysfunction in Bipolar Affective Disorders: Serum Endocan and Urotensin-II Levels

Oral E, Halici Z, Cinar I, Ozcan E, Kutlu Z

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated changes in urotensin-II (U-II) and endocan levels which can be used as an early biological marker of endothelial injury in the episode and remission phases of...
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Renal sympathetic nerve activation via α₂-adrenergic receptors in chronic kidney disease progression

Jang HS, Kim J, Padanilam

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide without an effective therapeutic strategy. Sympathetic nerve activation is implicated in CKD progression, as well as cardiovascular dysfunction. Renal denervation is beneficial for...
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Change of Extracellular Glutamate Level in Striatum during Deep Brain Stimulation of the Entopeduncular Nucleus in Rats

Lee HJ, Sung JH, Hong JT, Kim IS, Yang SH, Cho CB

OBJECTIVE: Globus pallidus interna (GPi) is acknowledged as an essential treatment for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nonetheless, the neurotransmitter study about its results is undiscovered. The goal of this research...
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Gender Differences in the Clinical Manifestation of Depression and Related Neurotransmitters

Yoon S, Chang SM

Depression is almost twice as prevalent in women than men. Atypical symptoms, somatic complaints, and comorbid anxiety disorders are more common in women, whereas suicide and comorbid substance use disorders...
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Values of Cytokines and Tryptophan Metabolites over a 12 Weeks Time Course in Patients with Depression and Somatoform Disorder

Krause D, Kirnich VB, Stapf TM, Hennings A, Riemer S, Riedel M, Schmidmaier R, Gil FP, Rief W, Schwarz MJ

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested alterations in the kynurenine pathway as a major link between cytokine and neurotransmitter abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. Most of these studies used a cross-sectional case-control...
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Fear Network Model in Panic Disorder: The Past and the Future

Lai CH

The core concept for pathophysiology in panic disorder (PD) is the fear network model (FNM). The alterations in FNM might be linked with disturbances in the autonomic nervous system (ANS),...
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A Novel Bio-Psychosocial-Behavioral Treatment Model of Panic Disorder

Park SC, Kim YK

To conceptualize a novel bio-psychosocial-behavioral treatment model of panic disorder (PD), it is necessary to completely integrate behavioral, psychophysiological, neurobiological, and genetic data. Molecular genetic research on PD is specifically...
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Brain consequences of acute kidney injury: Focusing on the hippocampus

Malek M

The high mortality rates associated with acute kidney injury are mainly due to extra-renal complications that occur following distant-organ involvement. Damage to these organs, which is commonly referred to as...
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Pathophysiology and new treatment of itch

Jung MJ, Choi YW, Chung BY, Park CW, Kim HO

Many of the patients visit the doctors because of itching sensation. Itching is an unpleasant sensation. In the epidermal keratinocytes, various neurotransmitters and receptors are related itching. The itch signal...
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Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Peptide Plays Critical Role in Psychostimulant-Induced Depression

Meng Q, Kim HC, Oh S, Lee YM, Hu Z, Oh KW

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is a widely distributed neurotransmitter expressed in the central nervous systems. Previously, several reports demonstrated that nucleus accumbal-injected CART peptide positively modulated behavioral sensitization...
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