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Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type 2 Complicated by Multiple Organ Failure, Empty Sella Syndrome and Aplastic Anemia

Kim HJ, Bae SI, Hong YH

Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS) is a group of syndromes comprised of glandular and extra-glandular disorders characterized by autoimmunity. A 57-year-old woman presented with acute progressive dyspnea and generalized weakness for...
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Management of a 25-day-old Male Presenting with a First Episode of Acute Pyelonephritis, and Persistent Hyperkalemia with Normal Serum Aldosterone

Kang YS, Choi JY, Lee JH

Hyperkalemia is often detected in young infants, particularly in association with acute pyelonephritis or a urinary tract anomaly. Cases of hyperkalemia in this population may also be due to transient...
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A Case of Myotonic Dystrophy with Electrolyte Imbalance

Ko WJ, Kim KY, Kim SM, Hong SJ, Lee SH, Song R, Yang HI, Lee YA

Type 1 myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder with a multisystem involvement, caused by an abnormal expansion of the CTG sequence of the dystrophic myotonia protein kinase (DMPK)...
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A Case of Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis Induced by Diabetic Nephropathy

Lee CS, Park JM, Kim MS, Lee JH, Kim DY, Lim YB, Lee YK

  • KMID: 2258893
  • Korean J Med.
  • 2011 Jun;80(Suppl 2):S227-S232.
Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is characterized by episodic flaccid paralysis of the skeletal muscles due to an increase in serum potassium concentrations. Primary hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is caused by point mutations...
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Disorders of Potassium Metabolism

Lee JH

  • KMID: 2196734
  • J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol.
  • 2010 Oct;14(2):132-142.
Hypokalemia usually reflects total body potassium deficiency, but less commonly results from transcellular potassium redistribution with normal body potassium stores. The differential diagnosis of hypokalemia includes pseudohypokalemia, cellular potassium redistribution,...
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A Case of Persistent Hyperkalemia After Unilateral Adrenalectomy for Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma

Yang MJ, Han SJ, Lee MS, Kim EK, Kim HJ, Kim DJ, Chung YS, Lee TH, Kim JH, Lee KW

Primary aldosteronism is a syndrome characterized by various clinical features that are due to excessive autonomous aldosterone secretion not sustained by the activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma...
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A Case of Primary Aldosteronism after Renal Transplantation

Song JC, Hwang HS, Hyoung BJ, Jeon YJ, Lee SY, Chang SN, Yoon HE, Choi BS, Kim YS, Yang CW

  • KMID: 2253212
  • Korean J Nephrol.
  • 2009 Jan;28(1):77-81.
After renal transplantation, we are more likely to encounter hyperkalemia rather than hypokalemia. We report a case of kidney transplantation recipient with hypokalemia and hypertension secondary to primary aldosteronism. A...
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Hyperkalemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

Han SW

  • KMID: 2052258
  • Electrolyte Blood Press.
  • 2005 Nov;3(2):71-78.
Potassium balance and serum potassium level are maintained until very late in chronic kidney disease (CKD), mainly because of an increase in renal and colonic excretion. Hyperkalemia may develop earlier...
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A Case Of Transient Hyporeninemic Hypoaldosteronism After Unilateral Adrenalrectomy for Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma

Suh J, Koh G, Park KY, Hong J, Chon S, Oh S, Woo JT, Kim SW, Kim JW, Kim YS

Primary aldosteronism is due to either a unilateral adrenal adenoma or bilateral hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex in most cases. A unilateral adrenalectomy in hypertensive and hypokalemic patients, with a...
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A case of POEMS syndrome associated with amyloidosis

Lee EJ, Ju HR, Ra SH, Han JY, An WS, Kim SE, Kim KH

  • KMID: 1652691
  • Korean J Med.
  • 2004 Apr;66(4):425-431.
POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal M protein, and skin lesion) is a rare multisystemic disease of unknown cause with varying clinical manifestations. Amyloidosis-associated POEMS Syndrome is also rare condition....
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Clinical Observation on Hyperkalemic Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis

Kang MJ, Kwak CH, Jin KB, Whang EA, Han SY, Park SB, Kim HC

  • KMID: 2254362
  • Korean J Nephrol.
  • 2004 Mar;23(2):263-269.
PURPOSE: Renal tubular aicdosis (RTA) is a disorder of renal acidification out of porportion to the reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Type IV RTA refers to hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis resulting...
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Chronic hyponatremia of Sheehan's syndrome

Kim BY, Ryu BK, Lim TY, Choi DH, Kim HL, Chung JH, Cho YS

  • KMID: 2252774
  • Korean J Med.
  • 2003 Nov;65(Suppl 3):S885-S889.
Sheehan's syndrome has been attributed to ischemic damage of the pituitary gland or hypothalamic-pituitary stalk during the peripartum period. Well-described clinical features of Sheehan`s syndrome include hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency,...
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Impaired potassium handling after acute oral potassium loading in outpatients on standard dose of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole(TMP/SMX)

Min KH, Han SW, Choi CS, Kim TY, Roh KH, You YJ, Yang SK, Yoo JH, Oh SJ, Mun JD, Kim HJ

  • KMID: 2306269
  • Korean J Med.
  • 1999 Jul;57(1):75-83.
BACKGROUND: TMP/SMX has been shown to cause hyperkalemia in a few outpatients on standard-dose. This prospective study was aimed at investigating other associated factors inducing clinically important hyperkalemia in outpatients...
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A Case of Transient Hyperkalemia and Hyperaldosteronism secondary to Hydronephrosis

Lee SB, Uhm JH, Lee KM, Wang KS, Kim YH, Han KA, Min KW, Han SH, Kim EJ

  • KMID: 2306311
  • Korean J Med.
  • 1999 Feb;56(2):220-224.
Renal tubular dysfunctions have been observed in hydronephrosis, resulting in metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia and excessive free water diuresis. These findings are occasionally found in infant and children. Batle et al. first reported...
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A Case of Diabetic Hyporeninemic Hypoaldosteronism Associated with Muscular Symptoms Due to Hyperkalemia

Oh JY, Sung YA, Lee SW, Sim J

  • KMID: 2331702
  • J Korean Diabetes Assoc.
  • 1998 Dec;22(4):568-573.
Diabetic hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism is clinically defined syndrome which is characterized by hyperkalemic hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy and nephropathy. The major cause of hyporeninemia in diabetes...
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A Case of Type IV-4 Renal Tubular Acidosis

Jo YA, Kim DU, Lee YK, Choi BJ, Kim JT, Lee IJ

  • KMID: 2208070
  • J Korean Pediatr Soc.
  • 1997 Nov;40(11):1603-1607.
Type IV renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is due to renal tubular bicarbonate wasting associated with mineralocorticoid deficiency. In its five subtypes, IV-4 is due to pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) evidenced by increased...
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Mechanism of Angiotensin 2-Stimulated Aldosterone Secretion in Adrenal Glomerulosa Cells of Diabetic Rats ; Normal Phospholipase Activity and Intracellular Calcium Mobilization

Sung YA, Kyung NH

  • KMID: 2331064
  • J Korean Soc Endocrinol.
  • 1997 Jun;12(2):230-244.
BACKGROUND: Diabetic patients develop hypoaldosteronism which frequently caused hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis and diabetic hypoaldosteronism is associated with selective unresponsiveness of aldosterone to angiotensin A-II, but mechanism of defect in...
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The Angiotensin II-Stimulated Phospholipase Activity in Adrenal Glomerulose Cells of Diabetic Rats

Sung YA

OBJECTIVES: Diabetic patients develop hypoaldosteronism which frequently caused hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis and diabetic hypoaldosteronism is associated with selective unresponsiveness of aldosterone to angiotensin II(A II), but mechanism of defect...
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Mechanisms of hyperkalemia associated with hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Kim HJ

This study was aimed at investigating the mechanisms of clinically important overt hyperkalemia in diabetes mellitus with underlying hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism known as a classic model of the syndrome of hyporeninemic...
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Hyperkalemia due to hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism with liver cirrhosis and hypertension

Kee CS, Choi JW, Chang DK, Ahn YH, Kim HJ

A 49-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and hypertension was found to have hyperkalemia out of a degree of renal insufficiency and metabolic acidosis with low to normal anion gap, aggravated...
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