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Mitochondrial Quality Control in the Heart: New Drug Targets for Cardiovascular Disease

Oh CM, Ryu D, Cho S, Jang Y

Despite considerable efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD), it has become the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac mitochondria are crucial cell organelles responsible for creating energy-rich ATP...
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New Insights on the Mechanisms Affecting Fertility in Men with Non-Seminoma Testicular Cancer before Cancer Therapy

Dias TR, Agarwal A, Pushparaj , Ahmad G, Sharma R

PURPOSE: Patients with non-seminoma testicular cancer (NSTC) cancer can be subfertile or infertile, and present reduced sperm quality, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was...
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Mitochondrial Mechanisms in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

Gollmer J, Zirlik A, Bugger H

Mitochondrial medicine is increasingly discussed as a promising therapeutic approach, given that mitochondrial defects are thought to contribute to many prevalent diseases and their complications. In individuals with diabetes mellitus...
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Prenatal diagnosis of harlequin ichthyosis: a case report

Vijayakumari M, Reddy DK, Routhu M, Vuchuru M, Reddy NS

Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a rare and severe form of ichthyosis and is characterized by thickened, hard, armor-like plates of skin that cover the entire body. This disease is caused...
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Effect of Dialysis on Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Transactivating Activity in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Kim JT, Kim SH, Min HK, Jeon SJ, Sung SA, Park WH, Lee HK, Choi HS, Pak YK, Lee SY

PURPOSE: Elevated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivating (AHRT) activity and uremia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) may interact with each other, further complicating the disease course. In this study, we...
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Zika Virus Impairs Host NLRP3-mediated Inflammasome Activation in an NS3-dependent Manner

Gim E, Shim DW, Hwang I, Shin OS, Yu JW

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus associated with severe neurological disorders including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. The host innate immune responses against ZIKV infection are essential for protection; however,...
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Metformin Ameliorates Lipotoxic β-Cell Dysfunction through a Concentration-Dependent Dual Mechanism of Action

Kim HI, Lee JS, Kwak BK, Hwang WM, Kim MJ, Kim YB, Chung SS, Park KS

BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to elevated levels of free fatty acids contributes to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Although it is well known that metformin induces cellular energy depletion and a concomitant activation...
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Effect of Polydeoxyribonucleotide on Lipopolysaccharide and Sevoflurane-Induced Postoperative Cognitive dysfunction in Human Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells

Jeong H, Chung JY, Ko IG, Kim SH, Jin JJ, Hwang L, Moon EJ, Lee BJ, Yi JW

PURPOSE: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a complication of surgery characterized by acute cognitive dysfunction, memory impairment, and loss of attention. The effect of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) on the POCD environment...
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Sleep Promoting Effect of Luteolin in Mice via Adenosine A1 and A2A Receptors

Kim TH, Custodio R, Cheong JH, Kim HJ, Jung YS

Luteolin, a widespread flavonoid, has been known to have neuroprotective activity against various neurologic diseases such as epilepsy, and Alzheimer’s disease. However, little information is available regarding the hypnotic effect...
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Cordycepin protects against β-amyloid and ibotenic acid-induced hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuronal hyperactivity

Yao LH, Wang J, Liu C, Wei S, Li G, Wang S, Meng W, Liu ZB, Huang LP

Cordycepin exerts neuroprotective effects against excitotoxic neuronal death. However, its direct electrophysiological evidence in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the protective...
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Optimizing Contrast Medium Injection for Coronary CT Angiography Using Myocardial CT Perfusion Data

Tomizawa N, Chou S, Matsuoka S, Yamamoto K, Inoh S, Nojo T, Kumamaru K, Fujimoto S, Nakamura S

OBJECTIVE: To derive and validate a formula to predict the optimal amount of contrast medium for coronary CT angiography (CTA) from CT perfusion (CTP) data during comprehensive cardiac CT. MATERIALS AND...
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Effect and Mechanism of Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors on Trabecular Outflow

Kim JW, Lee JB, Lee SH

PURPOSE: Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors increase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production by inhibiting re-uptake of adenosine and may potentiate nitric oxide (NO) activity. This study was performed to investigate the effects and...
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New classes of glaucoma medical treatment

Choi JA

Glaucoma is a progressive degenerative disease of the optic nerve head, characterized by a specific pattern of axonal loss and visual field deterioration. This review aims at introducing the different...
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Anti-malarial Drugs Reduce Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation via Activation of AMPK and Inhibition of Smad3 Signaling

Lee H, Han JH, Kim S, Kim S, Cho DH, Woo CH

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 anti-malarial drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), on inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation both...
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Traditional and Novel Mechanisms of Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) Inhibition in Cancer Chemotherapy Including HSP90 Cleavage

Park S, Park JA, Jeon JH, Lee Y

HSP90 is a molecular chaperone that increases the stability of client proteins. Cancer cells show higher HSP90 expression than normal cells because many client proteins play an important role in...
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Docosahexaenoic acid reduces adenosine triphosphate-induced calcium influx via inhibition of store-operated calcium channels and enhances baseline endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation in human endothelial cells

Vu TT, Dieterich , Vu TT, Deussen A

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3-fatty acid, modulates multiple cellular functions. In this study, we addressed the effects of DHA on human umbilical vein endothelial cell calcium transient and endothelial nitric...
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Clinical value of an adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay in resectable stage III colorectal cancer

Kim CD, Kim SH, Jung SH, Kim JH

PURPOSE: ATP-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) is a well-documented and validated technology that can individualize chemotherapy. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of ATP-CRA in advanced colorectal cancer...
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Adenosine Blockage in Tumor Microenvironment and Improvement of Cancer Immunotherapy

Arab S, Hadjati J

Immunotherapy has been introduced into cancer treatment methods, but different problems have restricted the efficacy of these protocols in clinical trials such as the presence of various immunomodulatory factors in...
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Baicalein Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Mouse Colitis

Zhong X, Surh YJ, Do SG, Shin E, Shim KS, Lee CK, Na HK

BACKGROUND: Baicalein is a bioactive flavone that is originally extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. This plant has long served as Chinese herbal medicine in the management of...
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Long-term Surgical and Chemical Castration Deteriorates Memory Function Through Downregulation of PKA/CREB/BDNF and c-Raf/MEK/ERK Pathways in Hippocampus

Shin MS, Kim TW, Park SS, Ko IG, Kim CJ, Kim M, Roh SY, Kim KT, Kim KH

PURPOSE: Goserelin is a drug used for chemical castration. In a rat model, we investigated whether surgical and chemical castration affected memory ability through the protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic adenosine...
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