Int Neurourol J.  2022 Sep;26(3):190-200. 10.5213/inj.2244016.008.

The Urobiome and Its Role in Overactive Bladder

  • 1Department of Urology, Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Urology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Chungju, Korea


Urine is no longer considered to be sterile. After the existence of the microbiome was revealed through metagenomic analysis using next-generation sequencing, the relationship between characteristics of the microbiome and diseases have been studied and published in various journals. A microbiome exists in the urinary tract and is associated with urinary tract infection, malignancy of the genitourinary tract, and lower urinary tract symptoms. Based on the urine sampling method, sampling site, culture method, and sex, the characteristics of the microbiome vary. Most of the Lactobacillus species are identified mainly in women, and various other species are identified in men. These microorganisms can cause or prevent various diseases. Variations in the microbiome are seen in those with and without disease, and an asymptomatic status does not indicate the absence of microbes. This microbiome has been implicated in a variety of lower urinary tract symptoms and diseases, in particular, overactive bladder. The microbiome differs between patients with urgency and urge urinary incontinence and healthy individuals. There are many aspects of the microbiome yet to be studied in relation to other lower urinary tract symptoms.


Microbiota; Overactive bladder; Biomarker
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