Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg.  2022 Aug;26(3):235-243. 10.14701/ahbps.21-173.

Changing incidence and survival of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database (2000–2017)

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, East Carolina University/Vidant Medical Center, Greenville, NC, United States
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY, United States
  • 3Department of Gastroenterology, East Carolina University/Vidant Medical Center, Greenville, NC, United States


Historically, the incidence and prognosis of patients diagnosed with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) have been inadequately understood. Survival analysis in ICC has yet to be investigated in a population-based study.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) 18 Registry. Risk ratios were estimated via Poisson regression. Hazard ratios for 5-year survival were estimated using hierarchical Cox regression models.
Males show a higher rate of age-adjusted ICC incidence. Blacks carried a decreased risk of ICC diagnosis than Whites, while Asians revealed a higher risk of ICC diagnosis when compared with Whites. The observed survival rates at 12, 36, and 60 months were 36.3%, 12.8%, and 8.1%, respectively. Compared with Whites, Blacks showed an increased risk of death (p < 0.01). Lymph node resection during surgery was associated with a 64.1% reduced risk of mortality (p < 0.01). A higher T stage at diagnosis was associated with poor survival (p < 0.01). Surgery combined with chemoradiotherapy, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy was associated with a reduced risk of mortality compared with nonsurgical interventions (p < 0.01).
ICC incidence has been increasing since 2000, especially in White males. The risk of ICC rises with age. Lymph node removal is associated with better survival. In recent years, survival had worsened, and surgical intervention improved survival compared with nonsurgical management.


Lymphatic metastasis; Prognosis; Cholangiocarcinoma; SEER Program; Survival
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