Vasc Spec Int.  2021 Dec;37(4):46. 10.5758/vsi.210041.

Risk Factors of Unfavorable Outcomes, Major Bleeding, and All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Venous Thromboembolism

  • 1Department of Surgery, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Surgery, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea


This study aimed to analyze the clinical outcomes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) patients and identify the risk factors for VTE-related unfavorable outcomes, major bleeding, and 30-day all-cause mortality.
Materials and Methods
From January 2016 to December 2020, 198 patients with confirmed VTE were enrolled. Potential risk factors for unfavorable outcomes, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality were analyzed.
VTE-related unfavorable outcomes developed in 13.1%, while 30-day all-cause mortality was 8.6%. In the multivariate analysis, a pulse ≥110/min and respiratory rate ≥30/min were statistically significant predictors for VTE-related unfavorable outcomes. Diabetes was a significant risk factor for major bleeding. In addition, a history of malignancy, no anticoagulation treatment, and need for mechanical ventilation were significant predictors of all-cause mortality.
VTE-related mortality and morbidity rates remained high. In cases of tachycardia and tachypnea, early aggressive treatment is needed to prevent unfavorable outcomes. Patients with risk factors should be closely monitored.


Venous thromboembolism; Risk factors; Mortality; Anticoagulants
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