Investig Clin Urol.  2022 Jan;63(1):92-98. 10.4111/icu.20210065.

Epidemiologic study of bladder and urethral injury in Korea: A nationwide population-based study

  • 1Department of Urology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan, Korea
  • 2Department of Urology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Urology, National Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Urology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea


We aimed to analyze the characteristics and management of bladder and urethral injuries in Korea by use of the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database.
Materials and Methods
Data from the NHIS database representative of all cases of Korean bladder injury (n=4,631) and urethral injury (n=17,858) reported between 2012 and 2016 were analyzed. We used the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, clinical modification codes to identify the diagnoses.
A total of 491 males (1.97/100,000) and 590 females (2.39/100,000) experienced bladder injury in 2012, and 449 males (1.76/100,000) and 624 females (2.47/100,000) in 2016. The risk of bladder injury was higher in female than in male (hazard ratio [HR], 1.267; p<0.001). The annual incidence of bladder injury did not increase (HR, 0.992; p=0.409). A total of 2,886 (62.3%) patients were managed with conservative treatment, and 1,745 (37.7%) patients underwent surgical treatment. A total of 4,114 males (16.5/100,000) and 285 females (1.2/100,000) had urethral injury in 2012, while 4,465 males (17.5/100,000) and 303 females (1.2/100,000) had urethral injury in 2016. The incidence of urethral injury is increasing annually (HR, 1.010; p=0.036).
The incidence of urethral injury increased continuously over the years studied, whereas that of bladder injury remained unchanged in Korea. The incidence of bladder injury was higher in females, and more than 90% of total urethral injuries were reported in males. This is the first study to evaluate the epidemiology of bladder and urethral injury using a nationwide population database.


Urethra; Urinary bladder; Wounds and injuries
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