Clin Orthop Surg.  2021 Mar;13(1):117-122. 10.4055/cios20075.

Validation of Remote Collection of PatientReported Outcomes Using Patients’ Smartphones

  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea
  • 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea


The purpose of this study was to examine the between-mode equivalence and the relative efficiency of the 2 available modes of patient-reported outcome (PRO) data collection: a web-enabled touch screen tablet and a smartphone in a sample of patients who underwent foot and ankle orthopedic surgery.
A total of 136 patients who visited the clinic after foot/ankle surgery participated in the study. All patients completed the PRO questionnaire set using tablets at the hospital. After 24 hours of completing the first PRO questionnaire, the patients completed the same PRO questionnaire at home using their personal smartphones. The outcomes were statistically compared, and the patients’ preferences were surveyed.
The intraclass correlation coefficients for comparing the results of PRO measurements between the 2 modes were 0.970 for the visual analog scale, 0.952 for the Foot Function Index, 0.959 for the foot and ankle outcome scale, and 0.957 for the patient’s satisfaction. Sixty-eight participants (58.6%) responded that they were able to answer the questionnaires with more honesty at home using their smartphones. Regarding the mode, 60 participants (48.1%) responded that they have no preference between the devices.
The results of this study showed the equivalence of the 2 modes of PRO data collection: web-enabled touch screen tablets and smartphones. Smartphones may be the preferred mode of PRO measurement, due to their easy accessibility, increased privacy, and the patients’ increased honesty in answering questionnaires.


Patient reported outcome; Remote; Visual analog scale; Foot function index; Foot ankle outcome score
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