Tissue Eng Regen Med.  2020 Apr;17(2):165-181. 10.1007/s13770-019-00236-5.

In Vivo Bioreactor Using Cellulose Membrane Benefit Engineering Cartilage by Improving the Chondrogenesis and Modulating the Immune Response

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5, Wonchon-dong, Youngtong-gu, Suwon, 16499, Republic of Korea
  • 2Cell Therapy Center, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5, Wonchon-dong, Youngtong-gu, Suwon, 16499, Republic of Korea
  • 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Inha University College of Medicine, 100, Inha-ro, Michuhol-gu, Incheon, 22212, Republic of Korea
  • 4Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 17104, Republic of Korea
  • 5Department of Plant and Environmental New Resources, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 17104, Republic of Korea
  • 6Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5, Wonchon-dong, Youngtong-gu, Suwon, 16499, Republic of Korea

Abstract

BACKGROUND
To regenerate tissue-engineered cartilage as a source of material for the restoration of cartilage defects, we used a human fetal cartilage progenitor cell pellet to improve chondrogenesis and modulation of the immune response in an In Vivo bioreactor (IVB) system.
METHODS
IVB was buried subcutaneously in the host and then implanted into a cartilage defect. The IVB was composed of a silicone tube and a cellulose nano pore-sized membrane. First, fetal cartilage progenitor cell pellets were cultured in vitro for 3 days, then cultured in vitro, subcutaneously, and in an IVB for 3 weeks. First, the components and liquidity of IVB fluid were evaluated, then the chondrogenesis and immunogenicity of the pellets were evaluated using gross observation, cell viability assays, histology, biochemical analysis, RT-PCR, and Western blots. Finally, cartilage repair and synovial inflammation were evaluated histologically.
RESULTS
The fluid color and transparency of the IVB were similar to synovial fluid (SF) and the components were closer to SF than serum. The IVB system not only promoted the synthesis of cartilage matrix and maintained the cartilage phenotype, it also delayed calcification compared to the subcutaneously implanted pellets.
CONCLUSION
The IVB adopted to study cell differentiation was effective in preventing host immune rejection.

Keyword

Cartilage tissue engineering; In Vivo bioreactor; Cellulose membrane; Fetal cartilage progenitor cells; Pellet culture
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