J Periodontal Implant Sci.  2020 Jun;50(3):171-182. 10.5051/jpis.2020.50.3.171.

Salivary microbiota in periodontal health and disease and their changes following nonsurgical periodontal treatment

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Periodontics, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Oral Histology, Seoul National University School of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Biotechnology, Korea University College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Periodontology, Institute of Oral Health Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea

Abstract

Purpose
The aims of this study were to examine the salivary microbiota in conditions of periodontal health and disease and to explore microbial changes following nonsurgical periodontal treatment.
Methods
Non-stimulated saliva samples were collected from 4 periodontally healthy participants at baseline and from 8 patients with chronic periodontitis at baseline and 3 months following nonsurgical periodontal therapy. The V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene from the DNA of saliva samples were amplified and sequenced. The salivary microbial compositions of the healthy participants and patients with periodontitis prior to and following nonsurgical treatment of periodontitis were compared based on the relative abundance of various taxa.
Results
On average, 299 operational taxonomic units were identified in each sample. The phylogenetic diversity in patients with periodontitis was higher than that in healthy participants and decreased following treatment. The abundance of the phylum Spirochaetes and the genus Treponema in patients with periodontitis was 143- and 134-fold higher than in the healthy control group, respectively, but decreased significantly following treatment. The species that were overabundant in the saliva of patients with periodontitis included the Peptostreptococcus stomatis group, Porphyromonas gingivalis, the Fusobacterium nucleatum group, Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Filifactor alocis, and Tannerella forsythia. The phylum Actinobacteria, the genus Streptococcaceae_uc, and the species Streptococcus salivarius group were more abundant in healthy participants than in those with periodontitis. There was a trend toward a decrease in disease-associated taxa and an increase in health-associated taxa following treatment.
Conclusions
Our results revealed differences in the taxa of salivary microbiota between conditions of periodontal health and disease. The taxa found to be associated with health or disease have potential for use as salivary biomarkers for periodontal health or disease.

Keyword

Microbiota; Periodontitis; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Saliva; Treponema
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