J Korean Med Sci.  2020 Jun;35(21):e183. 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e183.

Effects of Sedation Performed by an Anesthesiologist on Pediatric Endoscopy: a Single-Center Retrospective Study in Korea

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Anesthesiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Pediatrics, Hanil General Hospital, Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Background
Endoscopy is used for diagnosing and treating various digestive diseases in children as well as in adults. However, in pediatric patients, it is recommended that sufficient sedation should be ensured before conducting endoscopy, since insufficient sedation may cause serious complications. However, in Korea, no studies have yet described the types of sedation drugs, effects of sedation, and efficiency of endoscopy with respect to the sedation instructor. Thus, we investigated the effectiveness of sedative procedures performed by anesthesiologists.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients aged < 18 years who underwent endoscopy during March 2014–July 2019. Data of sedation instructors, sedation drugs and their doses, complications, and the recovery after sedation were evaluated.
Results
Of 257 patients, 217 underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and 40 underwent colonoscopies. Before EGD, 29 patients (13.4%) underwent sedation by the pediatric endoscopist and 188 (86.6%) were sedated by the anesthesiologist. The anesthesiologist performed the sedation for all 40 patients who underwent colonoscopy. Endoscopic examinations performed by the anesthesiologist were relatively more time-consuming (401.0 ± 135.1 seconds vs. 274.9 ± 106.1 seconds, P < 0.001). We observed that in patients who underwent EGD, there was a difference in the dose of midazolam administered (P = 0.000). When comparing EGD and colonoscopy in patients undergoing sedation by the anesthesiologist, there were no significant differences in the doses of midazolam and ketamine, but the dose of propofol increased for colonoscopy (2.50 ± 0.95 mg/kg vs. 4.71 ± 1.66 mg/kg, P = 0.000). The cognitive recovery time according to drug dose was associated with propofol only in EGD with a shorter endoscopy time. The longer cognitive recovery time in colonoscopy and the discharge time of EGD and colonoscopies were not associated with propofol use.
Conclusion
When sedation is performed by an anesthesiologist, various drugs are used with sufficient doses and complications are reduced, but the discharge time does not change. For performing pediatric endoscopy in Korea, anesthesiologists should be considered for inducing anesthesia.

Keyword

Endoscopy; Pediatric Patients; Anesthesia; Propofol
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