Gut Liver.  2020 May;14(3):291-296. 10.5009/gnl18579.

The Role of Intestinal Fungi and Its Metabolites in Chronic Liver Diseases

  • 1Department of Liver Diseases, The Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, China
  • 2Department of Liver Diseases, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China


Current studies have confirmed that liver diseases are closely related to intestinal microorganisms; however, those studies have mainly concentrated on bacteria. Although the proportion of intestinal microorganisms accounted for by colonizing fungi is very small, these fungi do have a significant effect on the homeostasis of the intestinal microecosystem. In this paper, the characteristics of intestinal fungi in patients with chronic liver diseases such as alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cirrhosis are summarized, and the effects of intestinal fungi and their metabolites are analyzed and discussed. It is important to realize that not only bacteria but also intestinal fungi play important roles in liver diseases.


Intestinal fungi; Alcoholic liver disease; Cirrhosis; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
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