Korean J Psychosom Med.  2019 Dec;27(2):90-100. 10.22722/KJPM.2019.27.2.90.

Association of Depression with Atypical Features and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea. gabriel.jdu@gmail.com


This study aimed to investigate the association between depression with atypical features and metabolic syndromes in Korean adults using the 2016 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data.
We used the 2016 KNHANES data to enroll 277 participants with a score of 10 or higher on Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Depression with atypical features was diagnosed when at least two of the following criteria were met : 1) sleeping more than 10 hours a day ; 2) weight gain of more than 3 kg in a year ; and 3) fatigue/anergia. Depression was divided into two groups based on the presence/absence of atypical features. Physical and mental health, and risk of metabolic syndrome were compared between the groups.
Among the 277 participants, 91 had depression with atypical features. We identified significant differences in age, sex, income, and education between the two groups. After adjusting for these variables, depression with atypical features had lower EuroQol-5D index scores (p<0.001) and higher prevalence of metabolic syndromes (p=0.035) compared to the depression without atypical features. Depression with atypical features had higher odds ratio (OR) in association with metabolic syndromes after adjusting for confounding variables (OR=1.923 ; 95% confidence interval : 1.069–3.460).
Depression with atypical features increases the risk of metabolic syndromes and lowers the quality of life.


Atypical depression; Metabolic syndrome; Patient health questionnaire-9; Quality of life
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