J Cancer Prev.  2019 Sep;24(3):163-172. 10.15430/JCP.2019.24.3.163.

Diagnosis and Risk Factors of Advantage Cancers in Ethiopia

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Public Health, St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. samrawit.solomon@sphmmc.edu.et
  • 2Department of Medicine, Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Yet, limited is known about patterns of cancer and risk factors for advanced stage cancers in Ethiopia.
METHODS
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 919 patients with biopsy-confirmed cancers at Tikur Anbessa Hospital in Ethiopia, 2010 to 2014. Pearson chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.
RESULTS
The majority of the patients were females (72.4%). The commonest malignancies among males were bone and soft tissue (16.5%), colorectal (12.2%), and esophageal (9.1%). Among females, the most common cancers were cervical (39.7%), breast (18.3%), and ovarian (7.1%); of these, 41.7%, 59.0%, and 42.6% were diagnosed at advanced stages, respectively. Females had more advanced stage cancers at diagnosis than males (37.6% vs. 24.8%, P < 0.01). Among males, 46.7% of prostate and 29.0% of colorectal cancers were in advanced stages at the time of diagnosis. Delay in presentation from onset of symptoms was associated with advanced cancer among females (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.69-6.10). Prostate cancer among males (OR = 5.22; 95% CI = 1.26-21.60) and breast cancer among females (OR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.23-3.03) were more likely to be diagnosed at advanced stages.
CONCLUSIONS
Cancers with effective screening tests are common in Ethiopia and significant proportions of these were diagnosed at advanced stages, typically several months after onset of symptoms. Timely access to preventive care along with effective educational and screening strategies is needed in Ethiopia for early detection and treatment of common malignancies, such as cervical, breast and colorectal cancers.

Keyword

Neoplasm staging; Neoplasms

MeSH Terms

Breast
Breast Neoplasms
Colorectal Neoplasms
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diagnosis*
Ethiopia*
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Mass Screening
Mortality
Neoplasm Staging
Prostate
Prostatic Neoplasms
Risk Factors*
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