Korean Circ J.  2020 Feb;50(2):163-175. 10.4070/kcj.2019.0099.

Impact of Anticoagulation Intensity in Korean Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Is It Different from Western Population?

  • 1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Heart Center of Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Korea. skawn77@gmail.com


Although anticoagulation with warfarin is recommended as an international normalized ratio (INR) of prothrombin time between 2.0 and 3.0 and mean time in the therapeutic range (TTR) ≥70%, little has been proven that universal criteria might be suitable in Korean atrial fibrillation (AF) patients.
We analyzed 710 patients with non-valvular AF who took warfarin. INR value and clinical outcomes were assessed during 2-year follow-up. Intensity of anticoagulation was assessed as mean INR value and TTR according to target INR range. Primary net-clinical outcome was defined as the composite of new-onset stroke and major bleeding. Secondary net-clinical outcome was defined as the composite of new-onset stroke, major bleeding and death.
Thromboembolism was significantly decreased when mean INR was over 1.6. Major bleeding was significantly decreased when TTR was over 70% and mean INR was less than 2.6. Mean INR 1.6-2.6 significantly reduced thromboembolism (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.85), major bleeding (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.23-0.81), primary (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29-0.84) and secondary (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28-0.74) net-clinical outcomes, whereas mean INR 2.0-3.0 did not. Simultaneous satisfaction of mean INR 1.6-2.6 and TTR ≥70% was associated with significant risk reduction of major bleeding, primary and secondary net-clinical outcomes.
Mean INR 1.6-2.6 was better than mean INR 2.0-3.0 for the prevention of thromboembolism and major bleeding. However, INR 1.6-2.6 and TTR ≥70% had similar clinical outcomes to INR 2.0-3.0 and TTR ≥70% in Korean patients with non-valvular AF.


Warfarin; Prothrombin time; Atrial fibrillation; Thromboembolism; Safety
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