J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc.  2019 Nov;58(4):322-330. 10.4306/jknpa.2019.58.4.322.

Depression and Gap between Perceived- and Self-Willingness-to-Pay for Labor in Community-Dwelling Full-Time Female Homemakers

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Jeonbuk Provincial Maeumsarang Hospital, Wanju, Korea. tyhwang73@naver.com
  • 2Insan Research Institute for Psychiatry, Jeonbuk Provincial Maeumsarang Hospital, Wanju, Korea.
  • 3Department of Psychiatry, Medical Foundation Yong-In Mental Hospital, Yongin, Korea.
  • 4Yong-In Mental Health Welfare Center · Yong-In Suicide Prevention Center, Yongin, Korea.


Knowledge of labor and mental health status of full-time homemakers is essential for the health and maintenance of our society. This study investigated the current states of mental health and related factors in full-time female homemakers, and the effect of the gap between socially evaluated (perceived)- and self-evaluated value of labor of full-time female homemakers on depression.
Participants were sequentially recruited from among community-dwelling full-time female homemakers, and assessed using structured questionnaires composed of general items as well as Korean versions of Beck Depression Inventory-II (K-BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI), and Beck Hopelessness Scale (K-BHS). The willingness-to-pay (WTP) approach was used to measure perceived and self-evaluated values of labor of full-time homemakers.
A total of 169 participants were enrolled. The analytical results showed that 45.2% of participants were positive when screened by BDI (mild to severe depression), 39.6% positive by K-BAI (anxiety), and 60.9% positive by K-BHS (hopelessness). Multiple regression analysis of significant factors related to depression were burden of nurturing (t=3.99, p<0.001), monthly income (t=−3.24, p<0.01), and relationship with husband (t=−3.03, p<0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that the gap between perceived- and self-WTP was a significant negative impact factor for depression level transition (K-BDI-II≥14) (p=0.025, odds ratio=0.995).
The results showed that full-time female homemakers are under relatively risky conditions and are associated with blind spots in the mental health perspective, suggesting that social support and a political approach are necessary for the maintenance of mental health of full-time female homemakers.


Woman; Full-time homemaker; Labor value; Willingness-to-pay; Mental health; Depression

MeSH Terms

Logistic Models
Mental Health
Optic Disk


  • Fig. 1 Distribution of severity on depression, anxiety, and hopelessness scales in study participants (n=168). The histograms in this figure indirectly show the seriousness and the current states of mental health of community-dwelling full-time female homemakers. 45.2% of all participants manifested mild-to-severe depression in the K-BDI-II scale. In particular, depression of moderate severity (24.4%) was relatively more than depression of mild severity (17.9%). In addition, the rates of anxiety in K-BAI scale and hopelessness in K-BHS scale were 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. K-BDI-II : Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory-II, K-BAI : Korean version of Beck Anxiety Inventory, K-BHS : Korean version of Beck Hopelessness Scale.


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