J Korean Med Assoc.  2019 Sep;62(9):497-504. 10.5124/jkma.2019.62.9.497.

New classes of glaucoma medical treatment

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. jinah616@catholic.ac.kr

Abstract

Glaucoma is a progressive degenerative disease of the optic nerve head, characterized by a specific pattern of axonal loss and visual field deterioration. This review aims at introducing the different novel pharmacologic agents for its treatment, as well as their mechanisms. Most glaucoma patients require lifelong care and individualized treatment. Intraocular pressure (IOP), which is regulated by aqueous humor production, outflow via the trabecular meshwork (parasympathomimetics only) and uveoscleral outflow pathways, is currently the only treatable target for glaucoma treatment. Conventional glaucoma medications are categorized as β blockers, α agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, parasympathomimetics, and prostaglandin analogues. The development of basic research-derived novel classes of pharmacologic agents features novel action mechanisms, which are different from those of conventional medications. New classes of recently approved or clinical trial-tested medications include Rho-kinase inhibitors, nitric oxide donors, adenosine agonists, and prostaglandin analogs targeting E-type prostanoid receptors, etc. Their integration and future development will facilitate the expansion and customization of therapeutic options.

Keyword

Glaucoma; Ocular hypertension; Intraocular pressure; Drug development

MeSH Terms

Adenosine
Aqueous Humor
Axons
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Glaucoma*
Humans
Intraocular Pressure
Nitric Oxide Donors
Ocular Hypertension
Optic Disk
Parasympathomimetics
Prostaglandins, Synthetic
rho-Associated Kinases
Trabecular Meshwork
Visual Fields
Adenosine
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Nitric Oxide Donors
Parasympathomimetics
Prostaglandins, Synthetic
rho-Associated Kinases
Full Text Links
  • JKMA
Actions
Cited
CITED
export Copy
Close
Share
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2022 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr