Korean J Urol Oncol.  2019 Aug;17(2):81-87. 10.22465/kjuo.2019.17.2.81.

Predictive Molecular and Protein Markers for the Recurrence of Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

  • 1Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea. sjyun@chungbuk.ac.kr, wjkim@chungbuk.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Korea.


Bladder cancer (BC) is the most common urinary tract neoplasm through the world. Around 80% of BC patients present with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Transurethral resection (TUR) of the bladder is the standard treatment to remove cancer tissue from patients with NMIBC. Unfortunately, BC frequently recurs after TUR. At least half of the patients diagnosed with NMIBC experience tumor recurrence after receiving the appropriate treatment. High recurrence rate is one representative characteristic of BC. Therefore, intravesical therapy after TUR is often performed in patients with NMIBC to prevent recurrence. In recent years, various therapeutic agents have been examined in preclinical and clinical trials for use in post-TUR adjuvant intravesical therapy. However, intravesical therapies using anticancer drug are relative safe but, lower anticancer effects and bacillus Calmette-Guérin has a strong anticancer effect but high frequency of adverse events. So, there are growing interests for prediction of recurrence of NMIBC. Until now, many studies were performed for the recurrence prediction markers of NMIBC with cancer tissues instead of blood or urine. In this review, we discuss the predictive value of various genetic, protein markers in cancer tissues, and molecular markers in blood and urine for the recurrence of the NMIBC.


Urinary bladder neoplasms; Recurrence; Biomarkers; Bladder
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