Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci.  2019 Aug;17(3):409-414. 10.9758/cpn.2019.17.3.409.

The Efficacy of Miniaturized Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Depression

  • 1Department of Biomedicine and Health Sciences, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Institute of Biomedical Industry, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3REMED Co., Ltd., Daejeon, Korea.
  • 4Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.


OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at a high frequency using a miniaturized device compared to standard rTMS and sham rTMS for the treatment of depression.
Fifty-four patients with depression were randomly assigned to either 15 days of miniaturized, standard, or sham rTMS. The stimulation consisted of 60 trains of 5 seconds at 10 Hz for 30 minutes. Clinical measures were assessed at baseline and on the final day of the stimulation.
A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of time and a time by group interaction on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores. There were no significant correlations between individual motor thresholds and changes of clinical outcomes. Our results revealed a significant reduction in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression in the miniaturized and standard groups compared to the sham group.
The antidepressant utility of miniaturized rTMS using subthreshold stimulation was comparable to that of standard stimulation.


Depression; Transcranial magnetic stimulation; Antidepressants
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