Kidney Res Clin Pract.  2019 Mar;38(1):100-107. 10.23876/j.krcp.18.0045.

Conversion from acetate dialysate to citrate dialysate in a central delivery system for maintenance hemodialysis patients

  • 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.


The objective of this study was to compare the impact of citrate dialysate (CD) and standard acetate dialysate (AD) in hemodialysis by central delivery system (CDS) on heparin demand, and clinical parameters.
We retrospectively evaluated 75 patients on maintenance hemodialysis with CDS. Patients underwent hemodialysis with AD over a six-month period (AD period), followed by another six-month period using CD (CD period). Various parameters including mean heparin dosage, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), calcium-phosphate product (CaxP), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and urea reduction ratio (URR) were collated at the end of each period.
Patients were 60.5 ± 14.7 years old, of whom 62.7% were male. Patients required less heparin when receiving CD (AD period: 1,129 ± 1,033 IU/session vs. CD period: 787 ± 755 IU/session, P < 0.001). After the CD period (Δ(CD)), pre-dialysis total COâ‚‚ increased to 1.21 ± 2.80 mmol/L, compared to −2.44 ± 2.96 mmol/L (P < 0.001) after the AD period (Δ(AD)). After the CD period, concentrations of iPTH (Δ(AD): 73.04 ± 216.34 pg/mL vs. Δ(CD): −106.66 ± 251.79 pg/mL, P < 0.001) and CaxP (Δ(AD): 4.32 ± 16.63 mg²/dL² vs. Δ(CD): −4.67 ± 15.27 mg²/dL², P = 0.015) decreased. While hsCRP levels decreased after the CD period (Δ(AD): 0.07 ± 4.09 mg/L vs. Δ(CD): −0.75 ± 4.56 mg/L, P = 0.705), the change was statistically insignificant. URR remained above clinical guideline of 65% after both periods (Δ(AD): 72.33 ± 6.92% vs. Δ(CD) period: 69.20 ± 4.49%, P = 0.046).
Our study confirmed that the use of CD in CDS required lower heparin doses compared to the use of AD. The use of CD also provided a more stable acid-base status.


Acetates; Citric acid; Hemodialysis; Heparin
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