Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr.  2019 May;22(3):262-269. 10.5223/pghn.2019.22.3.262.

Macronutrient Analysis of Human Milk according to Storage and Processing in Korean Mother

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea. meltemp2@hanmail.net
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3Department of Pediatrics, Severance Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE
As the importance of breastfeeding has been reinforced, human milk is often stored for practical reasons. Therefore, we evaluated optimal storage and processing methods for human milk from a nutritional standpoint.
METHODS
Human milk samples were collected between June 2017 and February 2018. Also, data about maternal information were collected. Human milk was analyzed for macronutrients and caloric content. The samples were subdivided into groups for nutrient analysis. The control group (fresh milk) was not stored or processed. The other groups (9 groups) consisted of samples analyzed based on different storage temperatures (room temperature, refrigerated, frozen), defrosting methods (bottle warmer, room temperature thawing, microwave oven), and storage period (1 week, 1 month, 2 months) and compared with the control group.
RESULTS
There was no statistically significant difference in the nutrient content of human milk among the collected samples. A significant change in the content of macronutrients in milk samples was observed under storage condition at different temperatures for 1 week with subsequent thawing with bottle warmer compared to fresh milk. Under storage at −20°C for 1 week with subsequent thawing with different defrosting methods, a significant change in the content of macronutrients in milk samples was observed compared to fresh milk. After storage at −20°C for different periods and thawing with a bottle warmer, a significant change in macronutrient content in milk samples was observed compared to fresh milk regardless of the storage period.
CONCLUSION
Unlike previous guidelines, changes in macronutrient content in milk samples were observed regardless of the method of storing and thawing. Apparently, it is proposed that mothers should feed fresh human milk to their babies without storing.

Keyword

Human milk; Breastfeeding; Infant formula; Macronutrients
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