Biomed Eng Lett.  2018 Aug;8(3):329-335. 10.1007/s13534-018-0076-1.

The effect of mechanical or electrical stimulation on apnea length in mice

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. sbujawde@bu.edu, bsuki@bu.edu
  • 2Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Abstract

Premature birth is a leading cause of infant mortality which is often attributed to irregular breathing and apnea of prematurity. A common treatment for apnea is caffeine to stimulate the brain's respiratory center. However, caffeine's long term effect on infant development is not fully comprehended. We hypothesized that noninvasive localized body stimulation regularizes breathing pattern. We investigated the impact of electrical or mechanical stimulation on breathing in mice. After the mice were ventilated for 28 s to induce apnea, mice were taken off the ventilator while receiving mechanical, electrical, or no stimulation in a randomized order. Both stimuli targeted the diaphragm area through a custom-built belt with vibrating motors or adhesive electrodes. After each apnea cycle, the time to take the first breath (T) was recorded. The electrical stimulation given at 4.5, 8.3, 16.7 V (pulse rate = 3 Hz, pulse width = 120 μs) showed no reduction in T. Electrical stimulation at pulse rates of 10 or 20 Hz (16.7 V, pulse width 260 μs) showed a detrimental effect increasing T by ~ 7% compared to control values (p = 0.005, p = 0.038 respectively). High and medium intensity mechanical stimulations significantly reduced T by 11.74 (p<10⁻¹³) and by 17.08% (p<10⁻⁸), respectively. Further reducing the amplitude of vibrations did not affect T. When the probe was attached to the ankles, only the high intensity vibrations resulted in a decrease in T (p<10⁻¹³). Mechanical vibrations, applied at various intensities and locations, could be used to treat irregular breathing and apnea in infants.

Keyword

Apnea of prematurity; Breathing regulation; Noninvasive; Mechanical vibrations; Electrical stimulation

MeSH Terms

Adhesives
Animals
Ankle
Apnea*
Caffeine
Child
Child Development
Diaphragm
Electric Stimulation*
Electrodes
Heart Rate
Humans
Infant
Infant Mortality
Mice*
Premature Birth
Respiration
Respiratory Center
Ventilators, Mechanical
Vibration
Adhesives
Caffeine
Full Text Links
  • BMEL
Actions
Cited
CITED
export Copy
Close
Share
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2022 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr