Yonsei Med J.  2018 Mar;59(2):194-201. 10.3349/ymj.2018.59.2.194.

Hypofractionated Re-irradiation after Maximal Surgical Resection for Recurrent Glioblastoma: Therapeutic Adequacy and Its Prognosticators of Survival

  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. cosuh317@yuhs.ac
  • 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea.
  • 3Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 4Department of Neurosurgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. changjh@yuhs.ac


To evaluate the adequacy of retreatment, including hypofractionated re-irradiation (HFReRT), after surgery for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) and related prognosticators of outcomes.
From 2011 to 2014, 25 consecutive patients with recurrent (n=17) or secondary (n=7) disease underwent maximal surgery and subsequent HFReRT after meeting the following conditions: 1) confirmation of recurrent or secondary GBM after salvage surgery; 2) Karnofsky performance score (KPS) ≥60; and 3) interval of ≥12 months between initial radiotherapy and HFReRT. HFReRT was delivered using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, with total dose of 45 Gy in 15 fractions to the gross tumor volume (GTV) and 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions to the clinical target volume.
During a median follow-up of 13 months, the median progression-free and overall survival (OS) were 13 and 16 months, respectively. A better KPS (p=0.026), no involvement of the eloquent area at recurrence (p=0.030), and a smaller GTV (p=0.005) were associated with better OS. Additionally, OS differed significantly between risk groups stratified by the National Institutes of Health Recurrent GBM Scale (low-risk vs. high-risk, p=0.025). Radiologically suspected radiation necrosis (RN) was observed in 16 patients (64%) at a median of 9 months after HFReRT, and 8 patients developed grade 3 RN requiring hospitalization.
HFReRT after maximal surgery prolonged survival in selected patients with recurrent GBM, especially those with small-sized recurrences in non-eloquent areas and good performance.


Recurrent glioblastoma; retreatment; re-irradiation; surgery; survival
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