J Korean Soc Spine Surg.  2017 Jun;24(2):137-145. 10.4184/jkss.2017.24.2.137.

Delayed Vertebral Collapse in Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: Risk Factors and Treatment Strategies

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. superdave@hanmail.net

Abstract

STUDY DESIGN: Literature review.
OBJECTIVES
To review the complications of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OCFs) with regard to risk factors and treatment strategies. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Understanding the complications and treatment methods of OCFs is important given their increasing prevalence.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Review of the literature.
RESULTS
The complications of OCFs include kyphotic deformity due to a delayed collapse of the vertebral body and neurologic deficits. The pathophysiologic mechanism of these complications has not been established; however, the most accepted theory is posttraumatic avascular necrosis of the vertebral body. The risk factors for these complications include fracture at the thoracolumbar junction, systemic usage of steroids, severe osteoporosis, and radiological intravertebral vacuum cleft. Most of these complications require surgical treatment, the indications for which include progressing axial back pain, pseudarthrosis, kyphotic deformity, and neurologic deficits. Surgical approaches for treating the complications of OCFs include anterior, posterior, and combined anterior-posterior approaches. Osteotomies should be done when deformity correction is needed. The decision among these various surgical methods should be made considering patient factors and the surgeon's ability to achieve the best outcomes with solid fusion.
CONCLUSIONS
complications of OCFs include kyphotic deformity due to delayed collapse of the vertebral body and neurologic deficits. Most of these complications require surgical treatment, in which achieving solid fusion at the fracture site is the ultimate goal. Patient-related factors and the surgeon's ability should be considered prior to making decisions regarding surgery.

Keyword

Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture; Complication; Kyphotic deformity; Avascular necrosis; Deformity correction
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