J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs.  2012 Mar;21(1):30-40.

Types of Physical Restraint Experience in Mentally Ill Persons: Q Methodological Approach

  • 1College of Nursing, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. lovisway@hanmail.net


The purpose of this study was to identify the patterns of physical restraint experience in mentally ill persons.
Q-methodology, an approach designed to discover patterns in various subjective experiences, was used. Twenty-two participants classified 36 selected Q-statements on a nine-point scale to create a normal distribution. The collected data were analyzed using the PC Quanl Program.
Five types of physical restraint experience in mentally ill persons were identified by the participants. Type I Emotional reaction-explosive anger, Type II Emotional reaction-internalized anger, Type III Rational reaction-rejection, Type IV Rational reaction-acceptance, Type V Rational reaction-trust.
The results of this study provide an understanding that different types of reactions to physical restraint experience exist and that each type has certain characteristics, which suggest a need to develop interventions specifically designed for each type of physical restraint experience.


Mentally ill persons; Physical restraint; Experience

MeSH Terms

Mentally Ill Persons
Restraint, Physical


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