Nutr Res Pract.  2016 Apr;10(2):198-205. 10.4162/nrp.2016.10.2.198.

Relationships between milk consumption and academic performance, learning motivation and strategy, and personality in Korean adolescents

  • 1Department of Technology and Home Economics Education, Kongju National University, Chungam 32588, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University, Gyeonggi 16890, Korea.
  • 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Hannam University, 1646, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054, Korea.


A healthy diet has been reported to be associated with physical development, cognition and academic performance, and personality during adolescence. This study was performed to investigate the relationships among milk consumption and academic performance, learning motivation and strategies, and personality among Korean adolescents.
The study was divided into two parts. The first part was a survey on the relationship between milk consumption and academic performance, in which intakes of milk and milk products and academic scores were examined in percentiles among 630 middle and high school students residing in small and medium-sized cities in 2009. The second part was a survey on the relationships between milk consumption and learning motivation and strategy as well as personality, in which milk consumption habits were collected and Learning Motivation and Strategy Test (L-MOST) for adolescents and Total Personality Inventory for Adolescents (TPI-A) were conducted in 262 high school students in 2011.
In the 2009 survey, milk and milk product intakes of subjects were divided into a low intake group (LM: ≤ 60.2 g/day), medium intake group (MM: 60.3-150.9 g/day), and high intake group (HM: ≥ 151.0 g/day). Academic performance of each group was expressed as a percentile, and performance in Korean, social science, and mathematics was significantly higher in the HM group (P < 0.05). In the 2011 survey, the group with a higher frequency of everyday milk consumption showed significantly higher "learning strategy total," "testing technique," and "resources management technique" scores (P < 0.05) in all subjects. However, when subjects were divided by gender, milk intake frequency, learning strategy total, class participation technique, and testing technique showed significantly positive correlations (P < 0.05) in boys, whereas no correlation was observed in girls. Correlations between milk intake frequency and each item of the personality test were only detected in boys, and milk intake frequency showed positive correlations with "total agreeability", "organization", "responsibility", "conscientiousness", and "intellectual curiosity" (P < 0.05).
Intakes of milk and milk products were correlated with academic performance (Korean, social science, and mathematics) in Korean adolescents. In male high school students, particularly, higher milk intake frequency was positively correlated with learning motivation and strategy as well as some items of the personality inventory.


Milk; academic performance; learning motivation; personality; adolescent

MeSH Terms

Personality Inventory
Personality Tests
Social Sciences


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