Nutr Res Pract.  2009 Mar;3(1):64-71.

Mechanisms of amino acid sensing in mTOR signaling pathway

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Catholic University of Daegu, 330 Geumnak 1-ri, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan 712-702, Korea. kimeunj@cu.ac.kr

Abstract

Amino acids are fundamental nutrients for protein synthesis and cell growth (increase in cell size). Recently, many compelling evidences have shown that the level of amino acids is sensed by extra- or intra-cellular amino acids sensor(s) and regulates protein synthesis/degradation. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is placed in a central position in cell growth regulation and dysregulation of mTOR signaling pathway has been implicated in many serious human diseases including cancer, diabetes, and tissue hypertrophy. Although amino acids are the most potent activator of mTORC1, how amino acids activate mTOR signaling pathway is still largely unknown. This is partly because of the diversity of amino acids themselves including structure and metabolism. In this review, current proposed amino acid sensing mechanisms to regulate mTORC1 and the evidences pro/against the proposed models are discussed.

Keyword

Amino acid signaling; mTOR; protein synthesis; cell growth

MeSH Terms

Amino Acids
Humans
Hypertrophy
Multiprotein Complexes
Sirolimus
TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
Amino Acids
Multiprotein Complexes
Sirolimus
TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
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