Mycobiology.  2007 Mar;35(1):39-43.

Furfural from Pine Needle Extract Inhibits the Growth of a Plant Pathogenic Fungus, Alternaria mali

  • 1Division of Food and Biotechnology, Chungju National University, Chungju, Chungbuk 380-702, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Joongbu University, Choongnam 312-702, Korea.


The antifungal effect of pine needle extract prepared by a distinguishable extraction method and the dry distillation method, was examined. The effect of this extract itself was insignificant. The chemical components of pine needle extract were then investigated by gas chromatographic analysis, and four chemical components, acetol, furfural, 5-methyl furfural, and terpine-4-ol, were identified. The antifungal effects of those four chemical components against Alternaria mali (A. mali), an agent of Alternaria blotch of apple, were then examined. It was observed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were 6.25, 0.78, 0.78, and 12.5 (mg/ml) of acetol, furfural, 5-methyl furfural, and terpine-4-ol, respectively. MICs of furfural and 5-methyl furfural had the same order of magnitude as that of an antifungal agrochemical, chlorothalonil. Although furfural itself can not be completely substituted for an antifungal agrochemical, a partial mixture of furfural and antifungal agrochemical may be used as a substitute. The use of agrochemicals for the prevention of plant disease caused by pathogenic fungus such as A. mali could be partially reduced by the application of this mixture.


Alternaria blotch; Alternaria mali; Antifungal activity; Furfural; Pine needle extract
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