J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.  2010 Jun;21(2):72-79.

Functional Impairment across Subtypes of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

  • 1Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Korea.
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Korea. irenelee@medimail.co.kr


OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in functional impairment between children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normal controls, and to compare the functional impairment across ADHD subtypes.
Children and adolescents with ADHD between the ages of 6 and 18 years were recruited for the study. Parents and teachers of the ADHD subjects completed the parents' and teachers' forms of the Children and Adolescents Functioning Impairment Scale (CAFIS), respectively. The results of these scales were compared to those of normal controls.
Subjects included 110 children with ADHD, predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-IA); 23 with ADHD, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-HI); and 60 ADHD, combined type (ADHD-C). When compared to 41 normal controls, there were significant differences in CAFIS-parent and CAFIS-teacher scales for the ADHD group. Functional impairment in the family relationship as rated by the parents was higher in children with ADHD-C when compared to that of children with ADHD-IA.
In comparison to normal children, children with ADHD have a higher level of impairment in several functional areas, and differences exist in functional impairment across ADHD subtypes. Further, ratings of functional impairment between parents and teachers were inconsistent. Thus, gathering information from the teachers is important when diagnosing or establishing treatment regimens for ADHD.


Function; Impairment; Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Subtype
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