Korean J Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surg.  2011 Jul;54(7):454-461. 10.3342/kjorl-hns.2011.54.7.454.

Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Fungal Rhinosinusitis

  • 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu, Korea. hsseung@cu.ac.kr


Fungal rhinosinusitis was once considered a rare disorder but is now reported with increasing frequency throughout the world. This entity is now thought to comprise five subtypes. Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, and chronic granulomatous invasive fungal rhinosinusitis make up the invasive group, whereas noninvasive fungal rhinosinusitis is composed of fungal ball and fungus related eosinophilic rhinosinusitis including allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). These five subtypes are distinct entities with different clinical, histological, and radiologic features. The diagnosis of each category is important for optimum therapy and predicting the course. However, consensus on terminology, pathogenesis, and optimal management is lacking. The distinction of granulomatous from chronic invasive type is not beyond controversy as both types have a chronic course and predominant orbital involvement. AFRS, eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis, and esinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis are imprecise and require better definition. The clear differentiation and definition of categories of fungal rhinosinusitis is related to the development of a management protocol of each category. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy are essential to avoid a protracted or fatal outcome.


Fungal rhinosinusitis; Eosinophil; Classification
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