Gut Liver.  2012 Oct;6(4):457-463.

The Performance of Multiple Transgastric Procedures Using the Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery Technique: Is Pure NOTES Satisfactory?

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. dwseoamc@amc.seoul.kr
  • 3Asan Institute for Life Science, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS
Although several groups have demonstrated the usefulness of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), there is still concern about frequent serious adverse events. We performed this study to determine the technical feasibility and safety of pure NOTES with a transgastric approach in a porcine model from the endoscopist's point of view.
METHODS
Diagnostic peritoneoscopy, liver biopsy, salpingo-oophorectomy, and Fallopian tube ligation with a transgastric approach using a two-channel therapeutic endoscope were performed in 10 healthy female minipigs. These procedures were performed in two acute models and eight survival models in consecutive order.
RESULTS
The technical success rate was 100% for peritoneoscopy (10/10), liver biopsy (5/5), salpingo-oophorectomy (10/10), and Fallopian tube ligation (10/10). Eight cases of adverse events occurred, including one case of splenic injury, one case of bleeding after liver biopsy, two cases of small bowel adhesion after salpingo-oophorectomy, two cases of hematoma at the salphingo-oophorectomy site, and two cases of partial dehiscence at the gastric closure site. The gastric puncture site was closed with seven to eight hemoclips in four cases and two hemoclips and an endoloop in four cases.
CONCLUSIONS
The use of pure NOTES for peritoneoscopy, liver biopsy, salpingo-oophorectomy, and Fallopian tube ligation may be technically feasible, but considerable adverse events can occur during or after the procedure. Further studies utilizing specialized techniques overcome several limitations of pure NOTES are therefore necessary.

Keyword

Natural orifice endoscopic surgery; Endoscopy; Swine
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