Arch Craniofac Surg.  2016 Mar;17(1):9-13. 10.7181/acfs.2016.17.1.9.

Anthropometric Analysis of Facial Foramina in Korean Population: A Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Study

  • 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


Position of the facial foramina is important for regional block and for various maxillofacial surgical procedures. In this study, we report on anthropometry and morphology of these foramina using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) data.
A retrospective review was performed for all patients who have undergone 3D-CT scan of the facial skeleton for reasons other than fracture or deformity of the facial skeleton. Anthropometry of the supraorbital, infraorbital, and mental foramina (SOF, IOF, MF) were described in relation to facial midline, inferior orbital margin, and inferior mandibular margin (FM, IOM, IMM). This data was analyzed according to sex and age. Additionally, infraorbital and mental foramen were classified into 5 positions based on the anatomic relationships to the nearest perpendicular dentition.
The review identified 137 patients meeting study criteria. Supraorbital foramina was more often in the shape of a foramen (62%) than that of a notch (38%). The supraorbital, infraorbital, and mental foramina were located 33.7 mm, 37.1 mm, and 33.7 mm away from the midline. The mean vertical distance between IOF and IOM was 13.4 mm. The mean distance between MF and IMM was 21.0 mm. The IOF and MF most commonly coincided with upper and lower second premolar dentition, respectively. Between the sex, the distance between MF and IMM was significantly higher for males than for female. In a correlation analysis, SOF-FM, IOF-FM and MF-FM values were significantly increased with age, but IOF-IOM values were significantly decreased with age.
In the current study, we have reported anthropometric data concerning facial foramina in the Korean population, using a large-scale data analysis of three-dimensional computed tomography of facial skeletons. The correlations made respect to patient sex and age will provide help to operating surgeons when considering nerve blocks and periosteal dissections around the facial foramina.


Facial bones; Anthropometry; Facial injuries
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