J Vet Sci.  2014 Dec;15(4):529-536. 10.4142/jvs.2014.15.4.529.

Occurrence and characterization of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig industries of northern Thailand

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand. patprapas@gmail.com
  • 2Field Epidemiology Training Program, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand.
  • 3Veterinary Research and Development Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation, Bangkok 10200, Thailand.
  • 4Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
  • 5Bureau of Disease Control and Veterinary Services, Department of Livestock Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation, Bangkok 10200, Thailand.
  • 6Department of Veterinary Medicine, Panel "Veterinary Public Health", Institute of Food Hygiene, Free University Berlin, Berlin 14195, Germany.
  • 7Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand.
  • 8Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in pigs, farm workers, and the environment in northern Thailand, and to assess LA-MRSA isolate phenotypic characteristics. One hundred and four pig farms were randomly selected from the 21,152 in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces in 2012. Nasal and skin swab samples were collected from pigs and farm workers. Environmental swabs (pig stable floor, faucet, and feeder) were also collected. MRSA was identified by conventional bacterial culture technique, with results confirmed by multiplex PCR and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Herd prevalence of MRSA was 9.61% (10 of 104 farms). Among pigs, workers, and farm environments, prevalence was 0.68% (two of 292 samples), 2.53% (seven of 276 samples), and 1.28% (four of 312 samples), respectively. Thirteen MRSA isolates (seven from workers, four from environmental samples, and two from pigs) were identified as Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec IV sequences type 9. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests found 100% of the MRSA isolates resistant to clindamycin, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline, while 100% were susceptible to cloxacillin and vancomycin. All possessed a multidrug-resistant phenotype. This is the first evidence of an LA-MRSA interrelationship among pigs, workers, and the farm environment in Thailand.

Keyword

environment; MRSA; pigs; Thailand; workers
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