J Korean Pediatr Cardiol Soc.  2005 Dec;9(2):308-316.

Initial and Intermediate-term Result of Transcatheter Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale Associated with Paradoxical Embolism Using the Amplatzer(R) PFO Occluder

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Anyang, Korea.


Paradoxical embolism due to the presence of patent foramen ovale(PFO) is a well-established possible mechanism of ischemic stroke of unknown origin, and the closure of PFO seems to be a kind of most effective method of the prevention of stroke recurrence. We report the initial and intermediate-term result of transcatheter closure of PFO associated with paradoxical embolism leading to cryptogenic transient ischemic attack or cerebrovascular accident using the Amplatzer(R) PFO Occluder.
From January 2003 through May 2005, 10 patients with PFO(4 male, 6 female) with history of at least 1 cryptogenic transient ischemic attack or cerebrovascular accident underwent percutaneous transcatheter closure of PFO using Amplatzer(R) occluder assisted by transesophageal echocardiography(TEE). All procedure were performed under general anesthesia and assisted by TEE.
In all patients, the implantation procedure was successful and no significant complication was observed(in one case, peri-interventional ST-segment elevation observed). During the follow-up period of mean 13.1 months(range, 1-28 months), no recurrence of neurologic episode were observed and there was no residual shunt through PFO.
We were able to implant the device without significant complication in all our patients and close PFO effectively. No recurrence of neurologic episode were observed. We conclude that in this initial and intermediate-term follow up, the transcatheter closure of PFO associated with paradoxical embolism using the Amplatzer(R) PFO Occluder is a safe and effective method in prevention of stroke recurrence and there is no significant adverse effect until now. And this procedure may be the treatment choice in patients with the high risk of recurrence ischemic attack. However, in this study, the number of patients included[5 patients(50%) had multiple thromboembolic events] is small and follow-up period is not long. So, we need more clinical cases and long-term clinical follow-up.


Patent foramen ovale; Transient ischemic attack; Stroke; Device closure
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