J Korean Acad Nurs.  2010 Apr;40(2):255-263. 10.4040/jkan.2010.40.2.255.

Effects of an Empowerment Education Program in the Prevention of Internet Games Addiction in Middle School Students

  • 1Department of Nursing, Chodang University, Muan, Korea. arjoo@chodang.ac.kr
  • 2College of Nursing, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.


The purpose of this study was to determine effects of an empowerment education program (EEP) on internet games addiction, empowerment, and stress in middle school students.
The EEP used in this study was based on the Freire's Empowerment Education Model. The research design of this study was a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design for 48 middle school students, who were conveniently assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The data were collected from May 29 to June 19, 2005. Data were analyzed using SPSS/PC program with frequencies, chi-square-test, Fisher exact test, t-test, mean, standard deviation and ANCOVA.
1) The first hypothesis that, "the experimental group would have higher empowerment scores than the control group." was supported. 2) The second hypothesis that, "the experimental group would have lower internet games addiction scores than the control group." was supported. 3) The third hypothesis that, "the experimental group would have lower stress scores than the control group." was supported.
We suggest, therefore, that the EEP should be used with adolescent to help them control their stress, internet games addiction and to increase their empowerment.


Empowerment; Internet; Addiction; Stress

MeSH Terms

Adolescent Behavior
Behavior, Addictive/*prevention &control
Patient Education as Topic
Power (Psychology)
Program Evaluation
Stress, Psychological
*Video Games

Cited by  1 articles

Effects of Academic Stress in Middle School Students on Smartphone Addiction: Moderating Effect of Self-esteem and Self-control
Il Ok Kim, Sun Hwa Shin
J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2016;25(3):262-271.    doi: 10.12934/jkpmhn.2016.25.3.262.


1. Bolton B, Brookings J. Development of a measure of interpersonal empowerment. Rehabilitation Psychology. 1998. 43:3–21.
2. Chally PS. Empowerment through teaching. Journal of Nursing Education. 1992. 31:117–120.
3. Choi BS. Effects of school-based mental health program on the stress, self-esteem, emotional-behavioral problems and social competences in middle school students. 2004. Gwangju: Chonnam National University;Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
4. Eo YS. Effects of an empowerment program on the burden of mothers having a child with cerebral palsy. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2005. 35:154–164.
5. Eom MK. Use of computer games by elementary schoolers and the relationship of game addiction to mental health. Journal of the Korean Society of School Health. 2002. 15:21–30.
6. Freire P. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. 1970. New York, NY: The Continue Publishing Corporation.
7. Fullam C, Lando R, Johansen ML, Reyes A, Szaloczy DM. The triad of empowerment: Leadership, environment and professional triad. Nursing Economics. 1998. 16(5):54–57.
8. Griffiths MD. Internet "addiction": An issue for clinical psychology. Clinical Psychology Forum. 1998. 97:32–36.
9. Gwon HG, Gwon JH. The effect of the cognitive-behavioral group therapy for high risk students of internet. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2002. 21:503–514.
10. Hanam Community Mental Health Center. Kyung Hee University School of Medicine. A study of adolescent's mental health in Hanam community. 1999. Hanam: Author.
11. Information Culture Center of Korea. Internet addiction counseling strategy. 2002. Seoul: Author.
12. Jang JH, Shin HJ. The effect of a protection program for adolescent excessive use of internet. Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 2003. 15:651–672.
13. Jones PS, Meleis AI. Health is empowerment. Advances in Nursing Science. 1993. 15(3):1–14.
14. Joo AR. The effects of an internet addiction prevention program on middle school students. Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing. 2009. 20:207–214.
15. Joo AR, Park IH. The difference of levels of internet-computer game addiction, stress and empowerment in sociodemographic characteristics of middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Welfare. 2005. 7(2):37–57.
16. Kim HS. A study on readiness for self-sufficiency of poor adolescents: Analyzing mediator effect of empowerment. 2002. Seoul: Ewha Womans University;Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
17. Kim YJ. Development of adolescent internet game addiction scale and psychological vulnerability factors of internet game addiction. 2002. Suwon: Ajou University;Unpublished master's thesis.
18. Korea Agency for Digital Opportunity and Promotion. K-scale & education program for prevention. 2003. 04. Seoul: Author.
19. Korea Game Industry Agency. The prevention programs for Internet games addiction in adolescents. 2004. 02. Seoul: Author.
20. Korea Game Industry Agency. A study on developing the game addiction scale and operating of clinic for games addiction. 2005. 02. Seoul: Author.
21. Korea Information Culture Promotion Center. The group counselling program for control of internet use. 2004. 01. Seoul: Author.
22. Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. 1984. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
23. Lee EO, Lim NY, Park HA. Nursing·medical research and statistical analysis. 1998. Seoul: Soomoonsa.
24. Lee GS. The effect of empowerment education program on the empowerment and mental health of delinquent juveniles. 2003. Gwangju: Chonnam National University;Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
25. Lee HC. A study on developing the internet games addiction diagnostic scale and the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy for internet games addiction. 2002. Seoul: Korea University;Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
26. Lee HJ, Kim MS, Son HK, Ahn SH, Kim JS, Kim YH. Discriminating power of socio-demographic and psychological variables on addictive use of cellular phones among middle school students. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2007. 37:957–965.
27. National Youth Commission. A survey of adolescent's internet use. 2004. 02. Seoul: Author.
28. Shin HM. The effects of reality therapy program for treating high school students' addiction to internet game. 2000. Seoul: Han-Kook University of Foreign Studies;Unpublished master's thesis.
29. Wallerstein N, Bernstein E. Empowerment education: Freire's ideas adapted to health education. Health Education Quarterly. 1988. 15:379–394.
30. Young KS. Psychology of computer use: XL. Addiction use of the Internet: A case that breaks the stereotype. Psychological Reports. 1996. 79:899–902.
Full Text Links
  • JKAN
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2024 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr