Psychiatry Investig.  2023 Dec;20(12):1126-1132. 10.30773/pi.2023.0092.

Association Between Executive Dysfunction-Related Activities of Daily Living Disability and Clinical Dementia Rating Domain Patterns in Patients With Vascular Dementia and Age-Matched Patients With Alzheimer’s Dementia

  • 1Jun’s Psychiatric Clinic, Samcheok, Republic of Korea
  • 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, Republic of Korea
  • 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju, Republic of Korea
  • 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju, Republic of Korea


Although the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale was originally developed to stage Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), it is now used globally for various types of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristic pattern of CDR domains and its association with neuropsychological findings and activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and patients with AD.
We recruited very mild to mild VaD and AD patients who were age-matched among the first visitors to a dementia clinic. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical interview, physical and neurological examinations, and laboratory tests, including brain magnetic resonance imaging, according to the protocol of the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease assessment battery.
A total of 105 pairs of VaD and AD patients participated in this study. Although the adjusted scores on Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination were similar between the two groups, the VaD patients performed better on the Boston Naming Test, Word List Memory, Word List Recall, Word List Recognition, and Constructional Recall Test. However, the scores on global CDR, CDR sum of boxes, and ADL-related CDR domains were higher in VaD patients than in AD patients (p<0.001). The VaD patients also showed poor performances on the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale, Frontal Assessment Battery, Executive Clock Drawing Task, and Stroop tests.
Despite similar general cognitive function and better memory function, patients with VaD tend to be staged as severer dementia on the CDR scale than patients with AD because of more impaired ADL associated with executive dysfunction.


Clinical Dementia Rating; Activities of daily living; Executive dysfunction; Vascular dementia; Alzheimer’s dementia
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