J Clin Neurol.  2022 May;18(3):351-357. 10.3988/jcn.2022.18.3.351.

Sex Differences in Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Among Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Background and Purpose
To identify sex differences in daytime sleepiness associated with apnea severity and periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Methods
This study used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI) in logistic regression analyses with interaction terms. Severe OSA, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), and PLMS were defined as an apnea-hypopnea index of ≥30, an ESS score of ≥11, and a periodic limb movements index of >15, respectively.
Results
The 1,624 subjects with OSA (males, 79.1%) comprised 45.3%, 38.2%, and 16.4% with severe OSA, EDS, and PLMS, respectively. Multiple logistic regression without interaction terms showed that sex, severe OSA, and PLMS were not significantly associated with EDS. However, significant interactions were noted between sex and severe OSA and PLMS in EDS in both crude and adjusted models (all p values<0.05). In the adjusted model, severe OSA was associated with EDS in males (p=0.009) but not in females. PLMS were more likely to be associated with EDS in females (p=0.013), whereas PLMS were less likely to be associated with EDS in males (p=0.041). The models were adjusted by the BDI score, SHI, and presence of medical comorbidities.
Conclusions
There are significant sex differences in subjective daytime sleepiness in subjects with severe OSA and PLMS. Severe OSA and PLMS may influence daytime sleepiness more in males and females, respectively.

Keyword

obstructive sleep apnea; excessive daytime sleepiness; periodic limb movements during sleep; sex differences
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