J Korean Acad Soc Nurs Educ.  2022 Feb;28(1):91-100. 10.5977/jkasne.2022.28.1.91.

The longitudinal effects of children’s temperament on maternal depression: A hierarchical linear modeling approach

  • 1Professor, Chungbuk National University


This study aimed to identify the longitudinal effects of children’s temperament on maternal depression.
Data from a longitudinal cohort of the Panel Study of Korean Children (PSKC) from 2010 to 2012 were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. The survey included 1,721 mother-child dyads. The mothers reported on their children’s temperament and on maternal depression. The children’s temperament was measured by the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability-Temperament Survey for Children-Parental Ratings, while maternal depression was measured by the Kessler 6 Psychological Distress Scale.
The results showed that both children’s temperament and maternal depression were relatively stable when the children were between the ages of 2 to 4. The mean maternal depression scores were 11.83 in 2010, 11.88 in 2011, and 11.75 in 2012. There were significant negative correlations between the maternal depression scores and children’s ages, and sociability and activity subdomain scores ranged from r=-.05 to -.11 (p<.05). There was a significant positive correlation between children’s emotionality subdomain scores and maternal depression scores (r=.35, p<.001). Children’s temperament rament (emotionality: β=0.26, activity: β=-0.07, and sociability: β=-0.03) were significant factors in maternal depression.
These findings indicate the need for the early assessment of and intervention for children’s temperament and maternal depression. The results of this study will provide basic data for the development of nursing education programs related to early assessment and intervention to improve the health and quality of life of young children and mothers.


Child; Preschool; Mothers; Temperament; Depression; Mother-child relations; Child; Preschool; Mothers; Temperament; Depression; Mother-child relations
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