Clin Orthop Surg.  2022 Mar;14(1):56-68. 10.4055/cios20234.

Does Risk Mitigation Reduce 90-Day Complications in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty?: A Cohort Study

Affiliations
  • 1Joint Replacement Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Major Rehabilitation Center, Command Hospital Air Force, Bangalore, India
  • 2Department of Orthopaedics and Major Rehabilitation Center, Command Hospital Chandimandir, Chandigarh, India
  • 3Department of Orthopaedics and Major Rehabilitation Center, Air Force Hospital Kanpur, Kanpur, India

Abstract

Background
With ever-increasing demand for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), most healthcare systems around the world are concerned about its socioeconomic burden. Most centers have universally adopted well-defined clinical care pathways to minimize adverse outcomes, maximize volume, and limit costs. However, there are no prospective comparative trials reporting benefits of these risk mitigation (RM) strategies.
Methods
This is a prospective cohort study comparing post-TKA 90-day complications between patients undergoing RM before surgery and those following a standard protocol (SP). In the RM group, we used a 20-point checklist to screen for modifiable risk factors and evaluate the need for optimizing non-modifiable comorbidities. Only when optimization goals were achieved, patients were offered TKA.
Results
TKA was performed in 811 patients in the SP group and in 829 in the RM group, 40% of which were simultaneous bilateral TKA. In both groups, hypertension was the most prevalent comorbidity (48%), followed by diabetes (20%). A total of 43 (5.3%) procedure-related complications were seen over the 90-day postoperative period in the SP group, which was significantly greater than 26 (3.1%) seen in the RM group (p = 0.039). The commonest complication was pulmonary thromboembolic, 6 in each group. Blood transfusion rate was higher in the SP group (6%) than in the RM group (< 1%).
Conclusions
Screening and RM can reduce 90-day complications in patients undergoing TKA.

Keyword

Total knee arthroplasty; Risk mitigation; Complications
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