J Gynecol Oncol.  2021 Sep;32(5):e70. 10.3802/jgo.2021.32.e70.

Fertility-preserving treatment outcome in endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

  • 1Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China
  • 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Shanghai, China


This study aimed to investigate the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on fertility-sparing treatment in young patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) or endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC).
A total of 285 patients with EEC (n=76, FIGO stage IA, without myometrium invasion) or AEH (n=209) who received progestin-based fertility-sparing treatment were evaluated retrospectively. Among the 285 patients, 103 (36.1%), including 70 AEH cases and 33 EEC cases, were diagnosed with PCOS. General characteristics, cumulative 16- and 32-week complete response (CR) rate, pregnancy outcome and recurrence were compared between patients with or without PCOS.
The cumulative 16-week CR rate was lower in the PCOS group than in the non-PCOS group (18.4% vs. 33.8%, p=0.006). Patients with PCOS took longer treatment duration to achieve CR (7.0 months vs. 5.4 months, p=0.006) and shorter time to relapse after CR (9.6 months vs. 17.6 months, p=0.040) compared with non-PCOS group. After adjusting for patient age, body mass index, PCOS, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, and serum testosterone levels, we found that body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (HR=0.583; 95% CI=0.365–0.932; p=0.024) and PCOS (HR=0.545; 95% CI=0.324–0.917; p=0.022) were significantly correlated with lower 16-week CR rate.
PCOS was associated with lower 16-week CR rate, longer treatment duration and shorter recurrence interval in patients with AEH or EEC receiving fertility-preserving treatment.


Endometrial Hyperplasia; Endometrial Neoplasms; Conservative Treatment; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
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