J Korean Orthop Assoc.  2022 Feb;57(1):15-26. 10.4055/jkoa.2022.57.1.15.

Navigation-Assisted Knee Arthroplasty in Case of Extra-Articular Deformity or Retained Hardware

  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, Korea
  • 2Department of Orthopaedics, Haeundae Bumin Hospital, Busan, Korea


Total knee arthroplasty is a surgical treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. Postoperative lower limb alignment is one of the factors determining the long-term prognosis after total knee arthroplasty. Navigation-assisted surgery can be used to achieve an accurate lower limb alignment. Particular situations, such as severe extra-articular deformity in the femur or tibia and retained hardware, are a good indication for navigation-assisted surgery. On the other hand, thorough preoperative planning and an understanding of each steps of surgery are necessary to perform total knee arthroplasty successfully in these special cases. In this review article, preoperative radiological measurements and surgical planning for extra-articular deformity correction will be elucidated. The surgical steps and necessary instruments for navigation-assisted total knee arthroplasty will be described in cases of extra-articular deformity or retained hardware. A literature review showed that the radiological and clinical results after total knee arthroplasty using navigation in osteoarthritis with extraarticular deformity were good. Therefore, it is essential to use navigation when performing total knee arthroplasty in patients with extraarticular deformity or retained hardware.


osteoarthritis; total knee arthroplasty; acquired joint deformities; tibia; femur
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