J Korean Clin Nurs Res.  2021 Dec;27(3):279-293. 10.22650/JKCNR.2021.27.3.279.

Development and Validation of a Korean Nursing Work Environment Scale for Critical Care Nurses

  • 1Unit Manager, Department of Nursing, Asan Medical Center, korea
  • 2RN, Department of Nursing, Asan Medical Center, korea
  • 3Nursing Director, Department of Nursing, Seoul National University Hospital, korea
  • 4Team Leader, Division of Nursing, Severance Hospital, korea
  • 5Professor, College of Nursing, Dongguk University, korea


The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean nursing work environment scale for critical care nurses (KNWES-CCN) and verify its validity and reliability.
A total of 46 preliminary items were selected using content validity analysis of experts on 64 candidate items derived through literature reviews and in-depth interviews with critical care nurses. 535 critical care nurses from 21 hospitals responded to the preliminary questionnaire from February to March 2021. The collected data were analysed using construct, convergent and discriminant validities, and internal consistency and test-retest reliability.
The 23 items in 4 factors accounted for 55.6% of the total variance were identified through item analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). EFA was performed with maximum likelihood method including direct oblimin method. In the confirmatory factor analysis, KNWES-CCN consisted of 21 items in 4 factors by deleting the items that were not meet the condition that the factor loading over .50 or the squared multiple correlation over .30. This model was considered to be suitable because it satisfied the fit index and acceptable criteria of the model [x2 =440.47 (p<.001), CMIN/DF=2.41, GFI=.86, SRMR=.06, RMSEA=.07, TLI=.90, CFI=.91]. The item total correlation values ranged form .32 to .73 and its internal consistency was Cronbach's ⍺=.92. The reliability of the test-retest correlation coefficient was .72 and the intra-class correlation coefficient was .83.
The KNWES-CCN showed good validity and reliability. Therefore, it is expected that the use of this scale would measure and improve nursing work environment for critical care nurses in Korea.


Intensive Care Units; Nurses; Work; Environment; Validation Studies as Topic
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