Neurospine.  2021 Sep;18(3):587-596. 10.14245/ns.2142450.225.

A Comparative Biomechanical Analysis of Various Rod Configurations Following Anterior Column Realignment and Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy

Affiliations
  • 1Engineering Center for Orthopaedic Research Excellence (ECORE), Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedics Surgery, Colleges of Engineering and Medicine, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA
  • 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sibley Gildenhorn Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Abstract


Objective
The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical differences of different rod configurations following anterior column realignment (ACR) and pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for an optimal correction technique and rod configuration that would minimize the risk of rod failure.
Methods
A validated spinopelvic (L1-pelvis) finite element model was used to simulate ACR at the L3–4 level. The ACR procedure was followed by dual-rod fixation, and for 4-rod constructs, either medial/lateral accessory rods (connected to primary rods) or satellite rods (directly connected to ACR level screws). The range of motion (ROM), maximum von Mises stress on the rods, and factor of safety (FOS) were calculated for the ACR models and compared to the existing literature of different PSO rod configurations.
Results
All of the 4-rod ACR constructs showed a reduction in ROM and maximum von Mises stress compared to the dual-rod ACR construct. Additionally, all of the 4-rod ACR constructs showed greater percentage reduction in ROM and maximum von Mises stress compared to the PSO 4-rod configurations. The ACR satellite rod construct had the maximum stress reduction i.e., 47.3% compared to dual-rod construct and showed the highest FOS (4.76). These findings are consistent with existing literature that supports the use of satellite rods to reduce the occurrence of rod fracture.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that the ACR satellite rod construct may be the most beneficial in reducing the risk of rod failure compared to all other PSO and ACR constructs.

Keyword

Adult spinal deformity; Anterior column realignment; Multirod constructs; Finite element analysis; Rod fracture; Pedicle subtraction osteotomy
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