Yonsei Med J.  2021 Sep;62(9):822-828. 10.3349/ymj.2021.62.9.822.

Funisitis as a Risk Factor for Adverse Neonatal Outcomes in Twin Neonates with Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Retrospective Cohort Study

  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Biostatistics, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea


Funisitis, inflammation of the umbilical cord, is considered a strong risk factor for adverse neonatal outcomes; however, a clinical definition of funisitis has not been established. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical significance of funisitis in twin neonates with spontaneous preterm birth.
Materials and Methods
The study included preterm twin neonates (<35 weeks) delivered after spontaneous preterm labor and/ or preterm premature rupture of amniotic membranes. The presence of funisitis was examined in the umbilical cord of each twin. We analyzed the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes according to the presence and absence of funisitis. Adverse neonatal outcomes were defined as the occurrence of neonatal mortality, significant morbidity, or both.
Among 474 preterm neonates (237 twin pairs) included in this study, the frequency of funisitis was 6.5% (31 cases). Funisitis was significantly associated with neonatal mortality and adverse neonatal outcomes after adjustment for confounding variables [neonatal mortality, odds ratio (OR) 9.043, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.620–31.204; adverse neonatal outcome, OR 2.445, 95% CI 1.017–5.875]. The concordance rate of funisitis between the twins was 10.7%, and in the absence of funisitis in one twin, the risk of neonatal mortality or adverse neonatal outcome was not influenced by the presence of funisitis in the other twin.
The presence of funisitis appears to be associated with an increased risk for adverse neonatal outcomes in twin neonates with spontaneous preterm birth.


Chorioamnionitis; funisitis; preterm birth; twin pregnancy
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