J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs.  2020 Sep;31(3):395-404. 10.12799/jkachn.2020.31.3.395.

A Structural Equation Model of General High School Students’ Happiness: Mediation Effect of Self-esteem and Resilience

  • 1Health Teacher, Indong High School, Gumi, Korea
  • 2Professor, College of Nursing, Keimyung University, Daegu, Korea


This study was conducted to develop a predictive model for happiness of students in general high schools. The study was based on the theory of happiness integration and the literature review. Methods: Data were collected using a convenience sample of 231 first and second grade students in five general high schools in D city and K Province. The exogenous variables were optimism as personality factors, parenting attitude, academic stress and friend’s support as happiness. The endogenous variables were self-esteem and resilience as mediating variables, and happiness of students in general high schools. Data collection was done from March 14 to March 28, 2019. The AMOS 22.0 and SPSS programs were used to verify the validity of confirmatory factor analysis and hypothesis models.
The factors that have the greatest influence on happiness of high school students are self-esteem and resilience. The explanatory power of happiness by these variables was 98.1%. The individual mediating effect and double mediation effect of these variables were found to be significant.
As student's optimistic personality, parent's positive parenting attitude, and friend’s support improve student's self-esteem and resilience, ultimately positively affecting high school students' happiness, so it is necessary to consider these factors and try to develop a happiness improvement program.


Students; Happiness; Self esteem; Friends
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