Pediatr Infect Vaccine.  2020 Dec;27(3):158-170. 10.14776/piv.2020.27.e24.

Incidence and Characteristics of Clostridioides difficile Infection in Children

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Severance Children's Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, the Republic of Korea


We evaluated the incidence and characteristics of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in Korean children.
Medical records of patients aged 2–18 years and diagnosed with CDI at a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2018 were analyzed. The patients were classified into three CDI groups: community-acquired (CA), community onset-health care facility-associated (COHCFA), and healthcare facility onset (HO).
The incidence of CDI increased from 1.00 to 10.01 cases per 10,000 admissions from 2009 to 2018 (P<0.001). As compared to the CA group, the HO group had a higher frequency of operation and malignancy as predisposing factors (40.4% vs. 0.0%, P=0.001; and 27.7% vs. 0.0%, P=0.027, respectively), frequency and number of previous antibiotic use (97.9% vs. 31.3%, P<0.001; and 2 vs. 0, P<0.001, respectively), and median postdiagnosis hospital stay (13 vs. 5 days, P=0.008). The CO-HCFA group had a lower median age and higher frequency of malignancy than the CA group (5 vs. 13 years, P=0.012; and 30.8% vs.0.0%, P=0.030, respectively). As compared to the HO group, the CA group had a higher frequency of abdominal pain and hematochezia (56.3% vs. 10.6%, P=0.001; and 50.0% vs. 10.6%, P=0.002, respectively), inflammatory bowel disease (68.8% vs. 2.1%, P=0.001), and intravenous metronidazole treatment (37.5% vs. 2.1%,P=0.001).
With the increasing incidence of pediatric CDI, awareness regarding its epidemiology and clinical characteristics is important to manage nosocomial infections.


Clostridioides difficile; Child; Epidemiology
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