Pediatr Emerg Med J.  2020 Dec;7(2):94-100. 10.22470/pemj.2020.00052.

Age group characteristics of children who visited a regional trauma center and analysis of factors affecting the severe trauma

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea
  • 2Department of Traumatology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea

Abstract

Purpose
The aim of this study was to analyze the age group characteristics and factors associated with the severe trauma in children who visited a regional trauma center.
Methods
We reviewed children aged 18 years or younger who visited a regional trauma center, equivalent to level 1 trauma centers in the United States, in Incheon, Korea from July 2014 through December 2019. They were classified by the age groups: preschoolers (0-6 years), schoolers (7-12 years), and adolescents (13-18 years). Across the 3 age groups, event profiles, severity, and outcomes of injury were compared. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with the severe trauma, defined as the Injury Severity Score of 16 or higher.
Results
Among the total of 367 children, 74 (20.2%) were preschoolers, 73 (19.9%) were schoolers, and 220 (59.9%) were adolescents. The most common injury mechanisms in the preschoolers, schoolers, and adolescents were fall (40.5%), pedestrian collision (32.9%), and motorcycle accident (38.6%), respectively. The adolescents had the highest median Injury Severity Score (13 [6-23]; P < 0.001). In the multivariable analyses, the Glasgow Coma Scale of 3-8 (odds ratio [OR], 14.60; 95% confidence interval, 5.40-39.42) had the highest OR for severe trauma, followed by injury in the abdomen or pelvic contents (OR, 11.61; 95% confidence interval, 4.66-28.89).
Conclusion
In pediatric trauma, the mechanism and severity of injury may differ according to age groups, with the severe trauma associated with injuries to the head and torso. It is advisable to have age group-specific approaches and strategies for injury prevention.

Keyword

Age Groups; Emergency Service, Hospital; Injury Severity Score; Pediatrics; Trauma Centers; Wounds and Injuries
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